Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Military ASVAB-Paragraph-comp : ASVAB Section 8: Paragraph comprehension exam Dumps

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Vendor Name : Military
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Military 8: learn


5 places the military should look for new recruits

(Disclaimer: The satirical story has been created purely for humor and entertainment purposes.)

Unless you live under a rock, you’re probably aware the U.S. military is mired in a bit of a recruiting crisis. With all branches, except the Marine Corps, expected to fail to hit target numbers this year, it’s becoming clear that new strategies are needed.

Pulling from high schools and cornering unsuspecting mall workers isn’t cutting it. Instead, here are some thoughts about locations that just might yield better numbers.

1. Golden Corral

Set up shop outside the all-you-can-eat fried fiesta that is Golden Corral. Diners there have iron stomachs, which is a boon for the military — considering mess hall food requires as much.

If a recruit can handle the Golden Corral Bourbon Street Chicken, they can handle boot camp.

2. West Virginia

John Denver may have wanted country roads to take him home to West Virginia, but not everyone feels that way. In fact, a 2022 poll from Wallethub listed the Mountain State as the saddest in the entire country.

Perhaps recruits would be elated to trade in the state’s rolling hills for seeing the world and all its exotic locales ... like Twentynine Palms, California, and Minot, North Dakota.

3. Used Car Dealerships

Enlistees are infamous for blowing their first paycheck on muscle cars that come with exorbitant interest rates.

Rather than sending newly minted E-1s out into the world to find predatory auto shops, recruiters could simply be there to offer jobs to those who already blew cash on that cherry red Mustang with no Carfax report. It’s called getting ahead.

4. Partner with a Girl Scout Cookie Booth

Sweeten the deal for recruits — literally. If you sign your life away to Uncle Sam, you get a free box of Samoas.

Plus, no one works harder than an 8-year-old in pigtails trying to sell enough boxes of Do-Si-Dos to win a trip to the Mall of America, and military recruiters could learn a thing or two from that kind of hustle.

5. Crossfit Gyms

There is no place more like the military than a Crossfit gym. Not only are the members physically fit enough to pass PT tests, they’ve also got a religious level devotion to the craft.

And anyone who commits to a community like that is prime for the military. No man — or monster truck tire — left behind.

Observation Post is the Military Times one-stop shop for all things off-duty. Stories may reflect author observations.

Sarah Sicard is a Senior Editor with Military Times. She previously served as the Digitial Editor of Military Times and the Army Times Editor. Other work can be found at National Defense Magazine, Task & Purpose, and Defense News.

Video of a Ka-52 attack helicopter being shot down in Ukraine hints Russia isn't learning what it should have by now, former US general says

  • Ukrainian forces destroyed three Russian Ka-52 attack helicopters this week alone.
  • One video circulating around social media shows the moment a helicopter gets shot down.  
  • A former US general told Insider that the incident highlights the inexperience of Moscow's pilots. 
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    A new video shared by multiple open-source intelligence accounts appears to show the moment a Russian Ka-52 attack helicopter was shot down over Ukraine on Thursday. It is one of several aircraft Kyiv's forces have taken credit for destroying this week. 

    Russian forces have benefitted from its Ka-52s for much of the ongoing Ukrainian counteroffensive, using them to inflict damage on enemy ground forces lacking adequate protection. But the latest incident captured on video, which shows the helicopter flying at an altitude that leaves it vulnerable to ground-launched missiles, seems to hint at the inexperience, incompetence, and inability to learn critical lessons plaguing Moscow's pilots, a retired US Army general said, telling Insider he "couldn't believe" the way they were flying.

    Ukrainian forces have found success this week in downing the formidable Ka-52, which is Russia calls the "Alligator" and NATO calls the "Hokum-B." Ukraine's defense ministry said on Monday that an anti-aircraft missile unit downed a Ka-52 in the eastern Donetsk region, and then the military said on Thursday that it eliminated two of the helicopters during separate engagements in the occupied Zaporizhzhia and Donetsk regions.

    After the two Ka-52s were shot down on Thursday, a video of one of the incidents surfaced on social media.

    Shaky footage shows two helicopters in flight just before one of them appears to take a hit from an unclear projectile. The aircraft, identified as a Ka-52, then plummets down into the ground, presumably bursting into flame and filling the sky with smoke, while the other one — which couldn't immediately be identified — quickly flees the scene.

    Some observers suggested that the helicopter was downed by surface-to-air missiles known as Man-Portable Air Defense Systems, or MANPADS.

    Ben Hodges, a former lieutenant general who headed US Army Europe, told Insider that when helicopters are up against effective short-range air-defense systems, they "are going to get killed" if they're not operating either very low to the ground or flying at a high enough altitude to evade the threat. 

    It's not immediately clear exactly what weapon was used to down the Ka-52 in the video. Several countries have outfitted Ukraine with short-range MANPADS, including the US, which has committed over 2,000 Stingers to Kyiv's military. These weapons boast an impressive range of 15,000 feet and use an infrared seeker warhead to threaten nearly any aircraft that operates below 12,000 feet. They were also used by Afghan guerrillas to defend against invading Soviet forces in the 1980s.

    Ukraine also operates the laser-guided Swedish RBS 70, which are resistant to jamming tactics.

    After watching the latest footage of the downing of the Ka-52, Hodges said he "couldn't believe it" that after nearly 18 months of full-scale war in Ukraine, Russian "pilots would be flying around at that altitude in broad daylight — it's not surprising that one of them would have been shot down." He said that while it's unclear what sort of tactical decisions the pilots may have been making, it seems as though "they still have not internalized the hard lessons learned, that you fly like that — you're going to be shot down."

    "I think it's probably more of a matter not of arrogance, but of inexperience, that they are still not internalizing what they should have learned by now," Hodges said. "And I think that's probably a little bit of a culture thing, as well as the fact that Russians have lost a lot of pilots," potentially indicating that more experienced pilots are in short supply.

    A Ukrainian soldier looks at fragments of the Russian Ka-52 helicopter destroyed by the Ukrainian army. Maxym Marusenko/NurPhoto via Getty Images

    The exact number of pilots lost over the course of the war is unclear, as Russia works tirelessly to conceal and downplay its battlefield casualties in Ukraine.

    An independent analysis by the BBC Russian Service and Mediazona estimates that 176 Russian military pilots had been killed as of late July. Insider was unable to verify the figure, but the exact death toll may be higher. According to open-source intelligence site Oryx, Moscow has lost nearly 200 crewed aircraft — including over 100 helicopters — and over 280 unmanned drones. 

    Among Russia's helicopter losses are at least 41 Ka-52s — praised as formidable gunships armed with 30 millimeter cannons and anti-tank guided missiles. Though Russia previously kept them away from the front, these aircraft became much more active along the forward lines in parts of southern Ukraine earlier this summer and has used them to threaten Ukrainian ground forces throughout the counteroffensive. 

    Britain's defense ministry said in late July that Russia's Ka-52s were "one of the single most influential Russian weapon systems" in the southern Zaporizhzhia region, which is one sector where Ukrainian forces have been conducting offensive operations. It said these aircraft had "imposed a heavy cost on Ukraine."

    But Ukraine's front-line forces have notched several victories against these capable helicopters, downing three in the past week alone. And while the losses seem to hint at Russian weaknesses, they also speak to the Ukrainian military's ability to adapt its tactics.

    Andriy Yermak, the head of Ukraine's presidential office, argued on Thursday that while it can shoot down these aircraft, Russia shouldn't even be able to produce the aircraft because they rely on foreign components from unspecified countries in the West and in Asia. He wrote in a Telegram post that there needs to be tougher sanctions against Moscow so it can't access the parts it needs to build the helicopters. 

    "Shooting down the Ka-52 is great," he said. "But it is much better to deprive Russia of the ability to produce it."


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug