Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : AZ-104
Exam Name : Microsoft Azure Administrator 2022
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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EXAM NUMBER : AZ-104
EXAM NAME : Microsoft Azure Administrator 2021

Candidates for this test should have subject matter expertise implementing, managing, and monitoring an organizations Microsoft Azure environment. Responsibilities for this role include implementing, managing, and monitoring identity, governance, storage, compute, and virtual networks in a cloud environment, plus provision, size, monitor, and adjust resources, when needed. An Azure administrator often serves as part of a larger team dedicated to implementing an organization's cloud infrastructure. A candidate for this test should have at least six months of hands-on experience administering Azure, along with a strong understanding of core Azure services, Azure workloads, security, and governance. In addition, this role should have experience using PowerShell, Azure CLI, Azure portal, and Azure Resource Manager templates.

Skills:
- Manage Azure identities and governance (15-20%)
- Implement and manage storage (15-20%)
- Deploy and manage Azure compute resources (20-25%)
- Configure and manage virtual networking (25-30%)
- Monitor and back up Azure resources (10-15%)

Manage Azure identities and governance (15–20%)
Manage Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) objects
 create users and groups
 manage user and group properties
 manage device settings
 perform bulk user updates
 manage guest accounts
 configure Azure AD join
 configure self-service password reset
Manage role-based access control (RBAC)
 create a custom role
 provide access to Azure resources by assigning roles at different scopes
 interpret access assignments
Manage subscriptions and governance
 configure Azure policies
 configure resource locks
 apply and manage tags on resources
 manage resource groups
 manage subscriptions
 manage costs
 configure management groups

Implement and manage storage (15–20%)
Secure storage
 configure network access to storage accounts
 create and configure storage accounts
 generate shared access signature (SAS) tokens
 manage access keys
 configure Azure AD authentication for a storage account
 configure access to Azure Files
Manage storage
 export from Azure job
 import into Azure job
 install and use Azure Storage Explorer
 copy data by using AZCopy
 implement Azure Storage replication
 configure blob object replication
Configure Azure files and Azure Blob Storage
 create an Azure file share
 create and configure Azure File Sync service
 configure Azure Blob Storage
 configure storage tiers for Azure Blob Storage
 configure blob lifecycle management

Deploy and manage Azure compute resources (20–25%)
Automate deployment of virtual machines (VMs) by using Azure Resource Manager templates
 modify an Azure Resource Manager template
 configure a virtual hard disk (VHD) template
 deploy from a template
 save a deployment as an Azure Resource Manager template
 deploy virtual machine extensions
Configure VMs
 configure Azure Disk Encryption
 move VMs from one resource group to another
 manage VM sizes
 add data disks
 configure networking
 redeploy VMs
 configure high availability
 deploy and configure scale sets
Create and configure containers
 configure sizing and scaling for Azure Container Instances
 configure container groups for Azure Container Instances
 configure storage for Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)
 configure scaling for AKS
 configure network connections for AKS
 upgrade an AKS cluster
Create and configure Azure App Service
 create an App Service plan
 configure scaling settings in an App Service plan
 create an App Service
 secure an App Service
 configure custom domain names
 configure backup for an App Service
 configure networking settings
 configure deployment settings

Configure and manage virtual networking (25–30%)
Implement and manage virtual networking
 create and configure virtual networks, including peering
 configure private and public IP addresses
 configure user-defined network routes
 implement subnets
 configure endpoints on subnets
 configure private endpoints
 configure Azure DNS, including custom DNS settings and private or public DNS zones
Secure access to virtual networks
 create security rules
 associate a network security group (NSG) to a subnet or network interface
 evaluate effective security rules
 implement Azure Firewall
 implement Azure Bastion
Configure load balancing
 configure Azure Application Gateway
 configure an internal or public load balancer
 troubleshoot load balancing
Monitor and troubleshoot virtual networking
 monitor on-premises connectivity
 configure and use Network Performance Monitor
 use Azure Network Watcher
 troubleshoot external networking
 troubleshoot virtual network connectivity
Integrate an on-premises network with an Azure virtual network
 create and configure Azure VPN Gateway
 create and configure Azure ExpressRoute
 configure Azure Virtual WAN

Monitor and back up Azure resources (10–15%)
Monitor resources by using Azure Monitor
 configure and interpret metrics
 configure Azure Monitor logs
 query and analyze logs
 set up alerts and actions
 configure Application Insights
Implement backup and recovery
 create a Recovery Services vault
 create and configure backup policy
 perform backup and restore operations by using Azure Backup
 perform site-to-site recovery by using Azure Site Recovery
 configure and review backup reports



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug