Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Google Apigee-API-Engineer : Google Cloud Apigee Certified API Engineer ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : Apigee-API-Engineer
Exam Name : Google Cloud Apigee Certified API Engineer
Vendor Name : Google
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Apigee-API-Engineer test Format | Apigee-API-Engineer Course Contents | Apigee-API-Engineer Course Outline | Apigee-API-Engineer test Syllabus | Apigee-API-Engineer test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The Google Cloud Apigee Certified API Engineer (Apigee-API-Engineer) test is designed to validate the knowledge and skills of individuals in designing, building, and managing APIs using the Apigee API platform. Here are the test details for the Apigee-API-Engineer certification:

- Number of Questions: The test typically consists of multiple-choice and multiple-select questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but typically, the test includes around 50 to 60 questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the test is 2 hours.

Course Outline:
The Apigee-API-Engineer certification course covers various Topics related to API engineering using the Apigee platform. The course outline typically includes the following areas:

1. Introduction to API Engineering:
- Understanding the role and importance of APIs in modern application development.
- Overview of the Apigee API platform and its features.

2. API Design:
- Designing RESTful APIs using best practices and industry standards.
- Implementing API design principles, such as resource modeling, versioning, and documentation.

3. API Security:
- Implementing authentication and authorization mechanisms for API access.
- Applying security controls, such as OAuth, API keys, and JWT tokens.

4. API Development and Implementation:
- Developing APIs using the Apigee Edge platform.
- Configuring API proxies, message transformation, and traffic management.

5. API Analytics and Monitoring:
- Implementing API monitoring and analytics using Apigee Edge.
- Generating reports and analyzing API usage patterns.

6. API Lifecycle Management:
- Managing the lifecycle of APIs, including versioning, deprecation, and retirement.
- Implementing change management processes and ensuring backward compatibility.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the Apigee-API-Engineer test are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of API design principles and best practices.
- Evaluating candidates' ability to implement API security measures and manage access controls.
- Testing candidates' knowledge of API development and implementation using the Apigee platform.
- Evaluating candidates' proficiency in API analytics, monitoring, and lifecycle management.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the Apigee-API-Engineer certification covers the following topics:

1. API Engineering Fundamentals
2. API Design
3. API Security
4. API Development and Implementation
5. API Analytics and Monitoring
6. API Lifecycle Management

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Google API Free test PDF


Google Search Console API Is Delayed

Google Logo Lines Api

For the past few days or so it seems that the Google Search Console API has been delayed. There has been complaints about this on social media and in the Google forums. It is not uncommon for Search Console to run into these delays but I see a lot of latest complaints about this, so I am reporting on it.

There are a number of threads in the Google Webmaster Help Forums about the delay and posts on Mastodon and X with complaints.

Optimizely wrote, "Anyone else's Google Search Console on a go-slow? I've got "Fresh data" markers against the last 3 days (usually only the last 24hrs) and my Looker Studio reports don't want to pull anything beyond 7th December through?"

Simon Cox responded, "I have a lot of pages on my personal site not indexed - added a load of old posts back into it over a week ago and none are indexed despite putting them in the queue. AS for data - Fresh data from the 8th to 10th. So yes same as you! As @johnmu always says - it will catch up."

El Carpo wrote, "Fourth day in a row that Google's Search Console API is nos showing up-to-date data."

John Mueller from Google replied on Mastodon saying, "Yeah, sometimes it's a bit slow, but it usually catches up."

In the forums, one person wrote, "this usually had 2-3 days delay between UI (search console) and the API, however we're now getting into the 6 day with no data what-so-ever, we're still able to retrieve data before that date, however nothing starting from and after 08 Dec 23, nothing has changed from their side."

Google Search Console Api Delayed

Another person wrote, "I have been using the Google Search Console API to pull data for a report and have noticed that no data past December 7 is being returned. I am used to a 2-day lag in data, however it's been 5 days and no data past December 7 is being returned. I am getting no errors, just an empty response."

Dave Smart noted, "you can add "dataState": "all" to the call and get the fresh data as well. That will bring it currently up to the 11th, "but I tend to wait for finalized, especially if you're warehousing the data," Dave added.

I should note that as of this morning the data is up to the 11th, which is still delayed but not as far back as it was earlier this week.

Forum discussion at Google Webmaster Help Forums, Mastodon and X.

Best free PDF editors in 2023

The best free PDF editors let you create, edit, and work together on files without any subscriptions or fees. 

We all know how important PDF files are. They literally keep millions of businesses on the same page. The best PDF editors we've tried - yes, even free versions - let you create and design seriously professional documents. There are limitations, and few free PDF editing software is as feature-packed as the likes of Adobe Acrobat. But add in e-signatures, forms, and enhanced security tools, and you do have some of the best Adobe Acrobat alternatives without any subscriptions or lifetime licenses. 

Our team of PDF experts have been hand-testing the top-rated apps and platforms to find out which is really the best. Here's what they learned and why they recommend using these apps and platforms online, on desktop, and on mobile. As part of their review process, we’ve tested out each free PDF app’s integrated tools, filetype support, collaboration and cloud storage facilities. Optional pricing upgrades are always noted, but every apps and platforms they tried here offers a completely free PDF editor. 

Top 3 editor's picks

You may have to pay for these, but they're some the top PDF software we've tried. 

What's the best free PDF editors in 2024?

Why you can trust TechRadar They spend hours testing every product or service they review, so you can be sure you’re buying the best. Find out more about how they test.

Best free PDF editor overall

(Image credit: PDF24)

A streamlined PDF creator and editor offered for free


Platform: PC

Plan: Free

Developer: Geek Software

Features include: PDF editor, PDF reader, conversion, merging, eSign, OCR

Reasons to buy +

Completely free


Fast and light


Lots of features for every need

Reasons to avoid -

Occasionally a bit clunky



PDF24 Creator is their pick for best free PDF editor overall. You may find the website a tad dated, but the tool is surprisingly feature-rich.

The free PDF editor is a very small program that can easily run on older systems - ideal, then, for businesses with limited resources or a suite of low-spec computers.

When they tested the software, they rated it as one of the best free tools, going above and beyond what's expected. It’s full of features, and has everything needed to create and edit PDF documents. While they noted that it lacked more advanced features usually found in premium tools like Adobe Acrobat DC, they felt that most users will find more than enough utility within PDF24 Creator. 

The Windows-only tool serves up a PDF editor for free document creation, PDF merging, PDF compressing, and converting PDFs into other formats. You can even optimize a PDF for the web or apply OCR to a PDF, so that you can convert scanned images to text.

PDF24 Creator has a minimalistic user interface and it’s clear that the program is designed around speed first and foremost. The interface can feel a little clunky at times, but all of the important features are easy to find and when you first open the software, you’re presented with a grid of editing options. And yes, their top choice for best free PDF editor is genuinely free and unlimited, through and through.

Read their full PDF24 Creator review 

Best free PDF editor online

(Image credit: PDF Candy)

Free online PDF editor with something for everyone


Platform: Web, PC

Plan: Free, Subscription, Perpetual license

Developer: PDF Candy

Features include: PDF editor, PDF reader, conversion, compression, merging, eSign

Reasons to buy +

Free online editor


Loads of features and tools


OCR capabilities


Windows version available

Reasons to avoid -

No Mac or mobile apps


Free version only allows for one task each hour

PDF Candy is ideal if you want a free online PDF editor and a way to edit PDF files in your browser. You’ll also find a desktop version available for Windows if you upgrade to the lifetime license. 

Easily one of the best free PDF editors online, it's delightfully simple to use - everything is clean, clear, and easy to navigate. And it's absolutely packed with functionality, with an impressive 47 different tools for editing, altering, converting PDF files, and so much more. During their tests, they found PDF editing as effortless every other function in the software, delighted that "editing text in a PDF file isn’t a million miles away from editing a word processor document."

The free version places a one-task-per-hour limit - e.g., processing an edited PDF file or converting a document. This can be removed by setting up a monthly or annual subscription, or purchasing it outright for a one-off payment. The latter also grants access to the Windows-only desktop PDF editor app. If restriction is too much to bear, and you don't need everything the platform offers, try PDF24 Creator - it's fully free across the board. 

Elsewhere, PDF Candy has a good amount of useful tools and features. This includes the option to edit PDF files online, convert documents to a variety of formats, merge and compress PDFs. 

On top of that, PDF Candy lets you easily extract text and images, resize pages, and add watermarks.  In total, there are an impressive 47 different tools to help you manage and edit PDF files. All features are found in a handy list of buttons, so you won't spend ages looking for what you need. Overall, they found service delightfully simple, but as with even the best free PDF editors, an upgrade unlocks its full potential.   

Read their full PDF Candy review

Best free PDF editor for Android and iPhone

(Image credit: SmallPDF)

The lightweight, online, conversion king of PDF editors


Platform: Web, Windows, Android, iOS

Plan: Free, Subscription

Developer: Smallpdf

Features include: PDF editor, PDF reader, scanner, conversion, compression

Reasons to buy +



Powerful range of tools


Allows you to convert PDFs to other formats


Cross-platform (for a price)

Reasons to avoid -

Can only process two documents per day


Extra cost for desktop app

Smallpdf was created with a single goal in mind: edit and compress PDFs. 

But what sets it apart from the competition is its extensive multi-lingual support, available in 24 different languages and used in 195 countries around the world.  

Long considered one of the best free PDF editors online - you can make all the changes you need from your browser - the user experience is excellent and incredibly easy to use. When they tested Smallpdf, they found the lightweight, cloud-based tool perfect for simple tasks, but not ideal for high-volume editing or advanced features. 

We found using the PDF editor very straightforward. Upload your PDF via the website, and begin making annotations and taking notes. They also liked the option to add pictures, text and shapes to a PDF. Once the necessary changes are made, Smallpdf gave us the option to compress a PDF or export it as a Word, Excel or PowerPoint file.

There are restrictions, as you'll find in many of the best free PDF editors. Chiefly, you're locked to two tasks per day - so a fully free tool like PDF24 Creator or Canva might be a better choice for more consistent use. 

If you want even more functionality, you can upgrade to Smallpdf’s premium edition. While the web version is slightly cheaper, you can pay a bit more to take advantage of the desktop version so you can work offline. Alongside a web PDF editor and Windows desktop app, users can also install the PDF editor on Android and iOS phones.

Read their full Smallpdf review 

Best free PDF editor for signatures

DocHub's PDF editor during their tests

(Image credit: DocHub)

Edit, share, and sign documents


Platform: Web, Windows, Mac, Android, iOS

Plan: Free, subscription

Developer: DocHub

Features include: PDF editor, eSign, Google and Dropbox integration

Reasons to buy +

Great range of signature options


Google and Dropbox integration


Wide filetype support


Easy to use

Reasons to avoid -

Minor glitches were reported by some users.


Not made for demanding, advanced workflows

If you’re looking for a free PDF editor with signing capabilities, DocHub is worth considering. When they went hands-on with the software, they described it as “a true gem, delivering comprehensive functionality without burdening users with unnecessary expenses.” 

The free plan has limits, but it’s relatively generous if you’re only a casual user. You’re allowed 2,000 documents, five eSignatures, three sign requests, and three email attachments per day. The pro plan, which costs $10 per user per month, lifts these restrictions for unlimited document editing. Subscribing also adds a handful of features and tools, like a wide font library and the ability to add drop-down menus to PDFs. 

During their time with DocHub, they found it intuitive and easy to navigate, with a good line in security for businesses. You’ll find an excellent page manager, where you can rearrange, label, rotate, add, or delete pages - just right click for all the options. And field creation was equally wide-ranging, letting you add extras like text boxes and legally binding signatures. Sharing and collaboration tools, ensuring you get documents signed by others, are also plentiful. 

But it’s not as feature-filled as dedicated PDF editors, and on the free plan, you’ll only have access to three basic fonts - Courier New, Times New Roman, Helvetica. But for getting your documents signed, it's absolutely up to job. 

Read their full DocHub review 

Best free PDF editor for designers

Building a templated PDF document in the free Canva PDF Editor

(Image credit: Canva)

Design and edit PDFs right in your browser


Platform: Web, Windows, Mac, iOS, Android

Plan: Free, Subscription

Developer: Canva

Features include: PDF editor, reader, designer

Reasons to buy +

Incredibly easy to use


Free with very few limits


Ideal for designing documents

Reasons to avoid -

Lacks advanced tools


Browser-based only


No OCR and eSign tools

Canva’s free PDF editor is a good choice if you’re looking to create documents from scratch or re-edit an existing file. 

Like the platform’s design app and logo maker, the browser-based editor is pure child’s play.  If you’re familiar with Canva’s other free tools, you won’t find any surprises here. And if you’ve never made or edited a PDF document before, it won’t take long to master the tools and build professional-looking assets. Select an element, drag it into position, and that’s that. It offers a decent amount of customization. You’ll also find it packed with stock images and vector graphics that can be added to your file. 

When they reviewed Canva - one of the best free PDF editors with design capabilities - they were especially impressed with its ability to turn existing PDFs into editable documents. Upload your file and the tool smartly identifies the different elements on the page - text boxes, images, background colors, that sort of thing. You’re then free to click and modify (or delete) any of these. 

There is also an app library for added utility. This is where you can connect your cloud storage services, add links, and even create QR codes. This is all free to use, but there is a monthly/annual subscription available, adding business-focused utilities such as brand kits, more cloud storage, premium graphics, and social media scheduling. Subscribers gain access to these across the Canva platform; it’s not limited to the PDF editing tool.

Effortless is, perhaps, the best way to describe this top free PDF editor. But while the tool excels on the design side, it lacks many of the advanced features you’ll find in full-fat software like Adobe Acrobat. There’s no OCR, for example, and no eSign integration. That makes it best for teams and marketing departments largely focused on designing their own PDF assets. 

Read their full Canva PDF Editor review 

Best free PDF editor for Mac

(Image credit: Apple)

Read, take notes, and much much more


Platform: Mac

Plan: Free

Developer: Apple

Features include: PDF manipulator, reader, highlighter, annotations

Reasons to buy +

Included with all Macs


Image-editing tools included


Can annotate and add signatures to PDFs

Reasons to avoid -

Only available for macOS


Lacks OCR

Apple’s Preview app is free, and as you’d imagine, only available on Apple devices like the MacBook. It’s designed to let you preview many different image formats, but its most interesting feature is its ability to view, interact with, and manipulate PDFs.

After testing their choice for best free PDF editor for Mac, they concluded that Apple’s product was a remarkably powerful editor, allowing you to perform what could be considered advanced content manipulation and note taking tools.

The basics are seamless: open a file, scroll through the pages, search for specific words, print the whole document, or just parts of it, fill in specific fields, add notes, it’s all there, and you can’t really ask for an easier-to-use PDF reader.

But Preview goes one better: you can manipulate PDFs files to a certain extent. There's no text editing, but you can reorder pages, rotate them, and even delete them. 

On the downside, despite being one of the best free PDF editors on the market, it lacks OCR tools. But most other functions should cater for most users. For custom PDF creation, you have the option of copying and pasting pages into new documents - as long as those original PDFs allow you to copy their pages.

Read their full Apple Preview review 

Best free PDF editor for minor edits

(Image credit: I Love PDF)

An effective tool to modify PDFs online


Platform: Windows, Mac, Android, iPhone, Web

Plan: Free, Subscription

Developer: iLovePDF

Features include: PDF manipulator, scanner, compression, conversion, protection, merge, OCR

Reasons to buy +

Very easy to use


Mostly free online service


Some clever tools


Good for minor document manipulation



Reasons to avoid -

Certain features require subscription


Not a full PDF editor

I Love PDF is an online service that allows you to manipulate PDF files in a number of ways. You can merge files together, split a single one into multiples, and convert documents to and from the PDF format. The only thing you can't do is alter the original content of a PDF, although you can add additional text boxes, images and shapes.

So, it’s not a full PDF editor like Adobe Acrobat DC. In fact, they noted in their review of the PDF editing tool that while it lets you manipulate documents in many ways, the drawback is that you can’t actually change the existing content of these files. You can only add extra text boxes, shapes, images, and the like. 

Despite this, it does contain a number of interesting features that are cleverly implemented. This includes being able to use your phone’s camera to scan pages, and have them appear back on your page on your computer, once done. You can easily add page numbers to every page, or even a watermark, and of course add a digital electronic signature to a document.

The online PDF editor is free, as long as you access it from a web browser. A handful of tools have limited functionality in this way, but should be suitable for most people’s needs. 

If you require more advanced features like OCR and offline PDF editing , then you’ll need to consider subscribing.  

Read their full I Love PDF review 

Best free PDF editor for data security

(Image credit: Sejda)

Best free PDF editor for data security


Platform: Web, Windows, Mac, Linux

Plan: Free, Subscription

Developer: Sejda

Features inlcude: PDF editor, compression, conversion, protection, merge, eSign

Reasons to buy +

No account required


Simple and easy to use interface


Uploaded files are deleted after 2 hours

Reasons to avoid -

File size limitations


Time restrictions on free tier

Sejda, like PDF Candy and Smallpdf, is one of the best free PDF editors available online in your browser. You can also grab a separate free downloadable, editable PDF app for desktops. 

What sets it apart from other similar offerings, however, are its security features. All files uploaded to the service are automatically wiped from its servers after two hours. This means you can use it to work on sensitive documents without having to be panic about your data being leaked or stolen.

Sejda as a convincingly power PDF editor - in their tests, they found that using it is incredibly self-explanatory, and it was frankly difficult to fault the tools on offer. On the other hand, they were disappointed by the lack of precision over layout and movement controls. In fact, during their time on the platform, they were noted a big flaw: "While you will find that it is possible to edit text, you're likely to find that fonts are changed, making it apparent precisely where edits have been made."

Sejda also offers a desktop version with the biggest difference being that all of the processing is handled locally as opposed to in the cloud. Regardless of which free version you choose, Sejda limits you to working on a maximum of three tasks per day, one file at a time and files can’t be larger than 50MB or 200 pages.

In addition to being able to edit PDF text, you can add new text as well as images including shapes and drawings. Sejda also lets you add annotations, create forms, whiteout sections of a document and more. However, it's worth noting that free users will get hit by the file size and time restrictions. For those that do decide to upgrade, Sejda is available as a weekly, monthly or annual subscription though there are discounts for larger teams with multiple users.

Read their full Sejda review 

Best free PDF editor: FAQs What is a PDF editor?

A PDF editor lets you assemble a Portable Document Format (PDF) file from scratch, as well as amend the content of existing PDF files. The format was released by Adobe in 1993 as a way to standardize documents viewed across different platforms, devices, and screens. Most PDF editors come with the ability to convert, or batch convert, common file types such as Microsoft Office’s Word, PowerPoint, and Excel to and from the PDF format. You’ll also find more advanced tools like optical character recognition (OCR) software. 

Are the best free PDF editors good?

Whether or not a free PDF editor is best for you will largely depend on how you’ll use it, and where. While there are some free PDF desktop apps that work offline, they don’t always feature multi-platform and mobile support. Many others are only available online in your browser. You'll find some have extra features, complete with the best PDF merger tools and best PDF compressors for most home and office uses. But others are bereft of anything but the basics. So, it can be hit-and-miss. Free PDF editors can also impose usage limits, such as the amount of files you can import, or export, per day. As such, they’re often better for light users, or to get a taste for the tool.  After testing out paid-for editors, they wanted to take a look at the good and the bad of the best free PDF editors to see what's there and what's not and whether a free PDF editor is a good alternative to a paid app. 

Should I use a free PDF editor?

Free PDF editors are popular and good for general use, though they lack the advantages and features of paid versions. 

Many free tools impose limits that can only be unlocked with a lifetime license or subscription. If you open and editor a lot of PDF documents, you'll need to be selective choosing the best free PDF editor. This is one of the main reasons why they loved PDF24 Creator and if you're a heavy PDF user, this is the one they recommend. 

Most free PDF editing software, however, is fine for occasional or semi-regular use. If you don't need a lot of features and fancy tools, there's plenty of options out there. 

Where businesses may hesitate in choosing a free PDF editor over a paid app is data security. It's worth being aware of some of the reasons why organizations often tend to go premium in their guide 5 reasons why you should avoid free PDF editors

How do I edit a PDF for free?

All PDF editors are designed differently - although tools and layouts follow a similar pattern. We’ve covered several ways to alter documents in the most popular paid-for and free PDF editors with their guide How to edit a PDF.

We've also highlighted the best method in Sedja PDF editor in their guide How to edit a PDF for free.

Is there a completely free PDF editor?

PDF24 Creator is a completely free PDF editor. It's free of charge, free of spyware, and it's their pick for best free PDF editor overall. But there are loads of amazing free PDF editing software depending on your needs and device/platform - many also include paid-for upgrades for premium features. 

Does Windows 10 have a free PDF editor?

Windows 10 doesn't include a built-in free PDF editor. You'll need to get a third-party app to create and edit any PDF files. However, like most browsers, the Windows 10 Edge browser features one of the best free PDF readers. It's a little basic, but ideal for quickly viewing and highlighting documents online. 

How to choose the best free PDF editor for you

Trying to decide which free PDF editor is best for you? Free PDF software tends to be less feature-filled than premium counterparts like out Editor's Picks. But there are a few features to look out for. 

Document editingMake sure you can edit documents. We've tested plenty of the best PDF readers Windows and the best PDF readers for Mac, and while some let you modify a document, they don't offer full editing capabilities. You don't want editing software that won't let you design a document from scratch.

Collaboration toolsPDFs are essential in digitally minded organization - so check your free PDF editor has tools for sharing, commenting, leaving notes, and making annotations to documents.

eSignaturesWith uses from HR to sales, digital signatures are fast becoming business-critical. Some of the top-rated free tools include the best eSign software for collecting and securely storing legally binding signed documents. 

Converter A really good free PDF editor will include conversion tools, letting you change a filetype from or to an editable PDF document. We've hand-tested everything from the best Word to PDF converters to the best PDF to AutoCAD converters, and they know how useful this feature is for all kinds of workflows. 

Cloud storage Reducing and saving storage space is one of the big benefits to PDF documents, so it's worth checking whether the best cloud storage is integrated into the platform. This will mean you can easily and securely access and share documents from connected devices. 

Optical character recognition Optical character recognition (OCR) may be a nice-to-have for some users, but it will be essential for anyone with too many paper files unsecured and taking up space. When a free PDF editor has the best OCR software equipped, it can scan and convert paper documents into digital documents, making them easy to securely store.

How they test the best free PDF editors

We've tested a host of PDF apps, including the best PDF readers for Android and the best PDF to PowerPoint converters. They take the same user-centric approach to all their testing, reviewing, and rating. We've looking for seamless user experiences, clear signposting, documentation, and support. We're also looking for toolkits that match the workflows of intended users. 

To test for the best free PDF editors, they first set up an account with the relevant software platform, whether as a get or as an online service. 

We then tested the service using a handful of PDF files to see how the PDF editor could handle editing not just text, but also images, as well as tables imported from Microsoft Excel. 

The aim was to push each software platform to see whether it could simply and easily not just edit a range of content types but also do so faithfully and consistently without introducing formatting issues or similar problems.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug