Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : BCNS-CNS
Exam Name : Board Certified Nutrition Specialis
Vendor Name : Medical
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BCNS-CNS exam Format | BCNS-CNS Course Contents | BCNS-CNS Course Outline | BCNS-CNS exam Syllabus | BCNS-CNS exam Objectives

Our certifying board, the Board for Certification of Nutrition SpecialistsSM (BCNSSM), sets the standard for advanced personalized nutrition practitioners via their Certified Nutrition Specialist® (CNS®) credential.

We certify practitioners in specialty areas of advanced personalized nutrition.

We designate as Fellows those who have distinguished themselves in the area of nutrition science and research.

We partner with universities to instill curriculum standards that equip the next generation of nutrition professionals.

The CNS designation demonstrates to colleagues, clients, employers and the public at large that certified individuals have the knowledge and proficiency required of the professional nutrition practice. BCNS has established qualifying pathways for Nutritionists, APRNs, DCs, DDSs, NDs, PAs, PharmDs, MDs, DOs, and other advanced-degreed health professionals who wish to demonstrate competence as advanced clinical nutrition professionals and/or obtain a potential pathway to state licensure for nutrition practice and Medical Nutrition Therapy. The Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS) is formal recognition for nutrition professionals who have met rigorous and demanding eligibility requirements, including postgraduate education, subsequent supervised practice in professional nutrition and demonstration of a depth and breadth of knowledge appropriate for effective practice in the profession of nutrition.

The BCNS paper and pencil examination contains 200 multiple-choice, single answer questions, and will cover the broad spectrum of basic and applied nutritional science. Themes such as fundamental principles on nutrition, nutrients and human health, nutrition exam, clinical intervention and monitoring, professional issues, epidemiology, biochemistry and integration of these areas, are threaded throughout the examination. Detailed information may be found within the published exam Content Outline. Candidates have four hours to complete the examination.

BCNS complies with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and will provide reasonable and appropriate testing accommodations for candidates with documented disabilities who request and demonstrate the need for accommodation as required by law. BCNS requires verifiable documentation to ensure the individual qualifies under the ADA as a disabled individual, and to allow accommodations to be specifically matched with the identified functional limitation to provide equal access to all testing functions.

The information provided by candidates and any documentation regarding such disability and special accommodation, will be treated with strict confidentiality and will not be shared with any source, with the exception of BCNS authorized testing consultants and proctors, without the candidates express written permission.

Candidates requiring special accommodations must complete the Special Accommodations Request form, and the Documentation of Disability-Related Needs form before scheduling the examination. These forms must be submitted with the CNS or CNS-S Certification Application to the BCNS by the deadline posted on the BCNS website. Arrangements for special accommodations may take up to 45 days to coordinate.

Requests for accommodations are reviewed by the Executive Administrator to ensure the request can be processed without jeopardizing the integrity or security of the examination. The Executive Administrator, or staff designee, will personally communicate with the candidate to ensure all processes and procedures are explained and that a testing appointment is scheduled to accommodate their needs accordingly, if feasible.

On exam Day

Testing Sites

BCNS examinations are administered at testing sites located throughout the Unites States. Testing sites have been selected to provide accessibility to the most candidates in the most controlled, secure and consistent environments possible. To ensure that examination results for all candidates are earned under comparable conditions and represent fair and accurate

• Failure to adhere to testing site examination restrictions

• Creating a disturbance, being abusive or being otherwise uncooperative

• Bringing restricted materials into the testingarea

• Using electronic communication equipment such as cellular phones, PDAs or communicating calculators.

• Gaining unauthorized admission into the examination testing area

• Attempting to take the examination for another individual

• Recording or attempting to record examination questions or making notes

• Eating and smoking

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Medical Board PDF Dumps


California Medical Board threatens to sanction doctors who irresponsibly deliver mask exemptions

Responding to allegations of irresponsible conduct, the board in California that licenses doctors warned last week that physicians face disciplinary action if they grant children exemptions from wearing masks in school “without conducting an appropriate prior exam and without a finding of a legitimate medical reason” for  an exemption.

The Medical Board of California issued a one-sentence statement on Aug. 18. It also encouraged the members of the public to file a formal complaint with the board if they “if they feel that a physician is granting mask exemptions inappropriately.”

The statement, along with a strongly worded press release from the California Medical Association regarding “reports of rogue physicians selling bogus mask exemptions,” coincided with a TV news story that former colleagues of Dr. Michael Huang had charged the Roseville private physician with selling mask exemptions for students in the Eureka Union School District in Roseville. The wavier included an exemption from wearing face shields reserved for students who cannot wear masks.

Huang denied the charges while telling station KTXL Fox 40 in Sacramento, “If I’m the only physician writing exemptions, that means all the other physicians in this state, in my area — in many other areas also in the state — basically gave up on their patients.”

Huang said he was fired last year from Sutter Independent Physicians because he refused to wear a mask because of his own challenges with asthma. The CEO of Huang’s former practice declined to discuss the reasons Huang was let go.

Without referring to Huang or any specific physician, California Medical Association President Peter N. Bretan, Jr., said in a statement, “It strains credulity to think that a single physician would have dozens or hundreds of patients with valid medical claims for such an exemption. Unfortunately, they know there are bad actors who are willing to operate outside the accepted standards of care in order to turn a personal profit. This needs to stop.”

Friday, January 5, 2024, 10:45 am UC San Diego international postdoctoral scholars face deportation threats Friday, January 5, 2024, 10:40 am California families to benefit from new federal summer nutrition program Thursday, January 4, 2024, 1:13 pm Court-ordered parenting classes “largely unregulated,” per L.A. Times investigation Thursday, January 4, 2024, 1:05 pm UC Berkeley clears People’s Park, erects barricades

Jeff Temple, Ph.D.

Health Philosophy

“My approach to medicine is driven by three overlapping philosophies. I strongly believe that 1) prevention science and health promotion is the most effective and fiscally responsible approach to healthcare; 2) the patient—whether an individual, agency, or community—is the expert and knows what’s best for them; and 3) scientists have a duty to inform and engage with the public and policymakers on matters specific to their expertise.”

Confusion as Georgia Medical Board rolls back rules on virtual prescribing

In a jolt to doctors who prescribe some controlled drugs that may be dangerous or habit-forming, the Georgia Composite Medical Board has restored pre-pandemic restrictions on doctors who prescribe controlled substances without an in-person visit.

The change took effect Jan. 1. Doctors and patients who have come to rely on telehealth or virtual doctor visits conducted by video are now scrambling to understand and comply with the law.

The board voted Dec. 7 to make the change, giving medical offices less than a month to adjust. The Composite Medical Board oversees doctors in Georgia, and if it finds unprofessional conduct it can put a permanent disciplinary mark on a doctor’s license, or revoke their license to practice in the state altogether.

During the federal pandemic emergency, many federal rules and restrictions concerning health care were suspended. As the emergency provisions have ended one by one, most of those rules have gone back into place. But in a nod to the new popularity of virtual health care, the federal government extended the ability to prescribe more drugs without an in-person visit to the doctor’s office. Washington now has another year, until December 2024, to adapt new federal rules to the changed virtual landscape in a way that will still protect the public health.

Georgia’s medical board decided not to wait.

In response to questions from The Atlanta Journal-Constitution for this article, the director of the Georgia Composite Medical Board said the board discussed the federal government’s delay in a number of its meetings. The vote to restore the Georgia restrictions now was unanimous, he said. There is one psychiatrist on the 16-member board, and he seconded the motion.

Some local doctors who are affected said they were blindsided by the change and that it wasn’t clear if they have to see the patient in-person each time a prescription needs to be renewed.

That would be a big barrier to health care for some patients, said Dr. Joseph Cubells, a psychiatrist at Emory Healthcare whose patients often have disabilities. Some of his patients are nonverbal, others may act out if they have to get in a car, and others live up to three hours away from his office.

Cubells said he thought it would be reasonable to require him to see a patient in person occasionally, for example once a year. “I see people from all over the state,” Cubells said. “To ask people to drive three hours to pick up a prescription, just to get a prescription, seems just insane to me.”

ExploreVirtual health care in Georgia: Has the moment arrived?

The state medical board’s director, Daniel Dorsey, told the AJC in a written statement “the GCMB’s decision does not forbid tele-prescribing.” For further understanding he said doctors could read the law and the board rules.

The pre-pandemic rules ban the prescribing of the controlled substances “based solely on a consultation via electronic means.” Those rules say that doctors can prescribe “a dangerous drug for a patient pursuant to a valid physician-patient relationship in accordance with” the law.

Cubells said Emory has asked the board for clarification on the new rule, but they don’t have clarification yet.

Janet Christenbury, a spokeswoman for Emory Healthcare, said in a written statement that Emory had learned of the medical board’s decision around the time of the vote. “We feel this new approach to prescribing controlled substances negatively affects many patients in addition to their psychiatry team, who have been able to achieve better access to health care and compliance by patients using telemedicine capabilities.”

The new rule comes amid a surge in drug addiction since the pandemic began. In addition, there has been a wave of private equity investment in virtual mental health practices, where good patient care might compete with investors’ financial goals.

Cubells has a rare specialty in Georgia, treating adults with autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. But even among more common specialties, health care is sparse. Ninety Georgia counties had no psychiatrist at all, according to the Georgia Board of Health Care Workforce, as of the latest data available, in 2020.

The old pre-pandemic prescribing rules might make sense for a surgeon or a pain doctor, Cubells said. In a survey in April and May of 2023, 97% of psychiatrists surveyed said they now conduct telemedicine visits, according to the American Psychiatric Association.

That study was submitted in testimony to the federal government as the pre-pandemic ban was up for renewal. The Drug Enforcement Administration held a listening session to hear evidence and perspectives from communities that might be affected by the ban.

In Georgia, it’s not clear whether that happened.

Laurisa Guerrero, executive director of the Georgia Council for Recovery, said that as far as she and her colleagues could tell, the Georgia board didn’t solicit comment from the addiction recovery community. Guerrero said she only learned of the board’s action when a reporter asked her about it Tuesday.

Guerrero is concerned by the move, she said. People in addiction recovery need stable access to doctors, and especially in rural communities that is often hard to come by. For example, she said, a patient may need Adderall — which is widely prescribed for attention deficit disorders — and if they can’t get it, they may turn to illegal drugs and self-medicate.

”By making it where people can’t use telehealth options, it has a bigger impact in rural communities than, say, it would in Metro communities,” she said. “Transportation is one of the biggest barriers in rural communities. They don’t even have Uber ... It’s just a huge barrier.”


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug