Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Medical BCNS-CNS : Board Certified Nutrition Specialis ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : BCNS-CNS
Exam Name : Board Certified Nutrition Specialis
Vendor Name : Medical
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BCNS-CNS test Format | BCNS-CNS Course Contents | BCNS-CNS Course Outline | BCNS-CNS test Syllabus | BCNS-CNS test Objectives

Our certifying board, the Board for Certification of Nutrition SpecialistsSM (BCNSSM), sets the standard for advanced personalized nutrition practitioners via their Certified Nutrition Specialist® (CNS®) credential.

We certify practitioners in specialty areas of advanced personalized nutrition.

We designate as Fellows those who have distinguished themselves in the area of nutrition science and research.

We partner with universities to instill curriculum standards that equip the next generation of nutrition professionals.

The CNS designation demonstrates to colleagues, clients, employers and the public at large that certified individuals have the knowledge and proficiency required of the professional nutrition practice. BCNS has established qualifying pathways for Nutritionists, APRNs, DCs, DDSs, NDs, PAs, PharmDs, MDs, DOs, and other advanced-degreed health professionals who wish to demonstrate competence as advanced clinical nutrition professionals and/or obtain a potential pathway to state licensure for nutrition practice and Medical Nutrition Therapy. The Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS) is formal recognition for nutrition professionals who have met rigorous and demanding eligibility requirements, including postgraduate education, subsequent supervised practice in professional nutrition and demonstration of a depth and breadth of knowledge appropriate for effective practice in the profession of nutrition.

The BCNS paper and pencil examination contains 200 multiple-choice, single answer questions, and will cover the broad spectrum of basic and applied nutritional science. Themes such as fundamental principles on nutrition, nutrients and human health, nutrition exam, clinical intervention and monitoring, professional issues, epidemiology, biochemistry and integration of these areas, are threaded throughout the examination. Detailed information may be found within the published test Content Outline. Candidates have four hours to complete the examination.

BCNS complies with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and will provide reasonable and appropriate testing accommodations for candidates with documented disabilities who request and demonstrate the need for accommodation as required by law. BCNS requires verifiable documentation to ensure the individual qualifies under the ADA as a disabled individual, and to allow accommodations to be specifically matched with the identified functional limitation to provide equal access to all testing functions.

The information provided by candidates and any documentation regarding such disability and special accommodation, will be treated with strict confidentiality and will not be shared with any source, with the exception of BCNS authorized testing consultants and proctors, without the candidates express written permission.

Candidates requiring special accommodations must complete the Special Accommodations Request form, and the Documentation of Disability-Related Needs form before scheduling the examination. These forms must be submitted with the CNS or CNS-S Certification Application to the BCNS by the deadline posted on the BCNS website. Arrangements for special accommodations may take up to 45 days to coordinate.

Requests for accommodations are reviewed by the Executive Administrator to ensure the request can be processed without jeopardizing the integrity or security of the examination. The Executive Administrator, or staff designee, will personally communicate with the candidate to ensure all processes and procedures are explained and that a testing appointment is scheduled to accommodate their needs accordingly, if feasible.

On test Day

Testing Sites

BCNS examinations are administered at testing sites located throughout the Unites States. Testing sites have been selected to provide accessibility to the most candidates in the most controlled, secure and consistent environments possible. To ensure that examination results for all candidates are earned under comparable conditions and represent fair and accurate

• Failure to adhere to testing site examination restrictions

• Creating a disturbance, being abusive or being otherwise uncooperative

• Bringing restricted materials into the testingarea

• Using electronic communication equipment such as cellular phones, PDAs or communicating calculators.

• Gaining unauthorized admission into the examination testing area

• Attempting to take the examination for another individual

• Recording or attempting to record examination questions or making notes

• Eating and smoking

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Medical Nutrition study tips


Food & You: the utility of a digital cohort for personalized nutrition studies

In a latest article posted to the medRxiv* server, researchers used a digital (completely remote) cohort to implement a personalized nutrition study.

Food & You: A Digital Cohort on Personalized Nutrition Study: Food & You: A Digital Cohort on Personalized Nutrition. Image Credit: Prostock-studio/Shutterstock.com

*Important notice: medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

They gathered high-resolution data on demography, dietary intake, gut microbiota, physical activity, and blood glucose levels of over 1000 participants for two to four weeks between October 2018 and March 2023 in Switzerland and the Netherlands. 

It allowed study participants to collect in situ data daily using a mobile application and wearable sensors. However, to rule out all concerns related to data quality, the researchers focused on assessing data quality and reliability.


Most nutritional epidemiology studies studied the effects of nutrition and a healthy diet at the population level, which informed dietary recommendations and guidelines. More recently, some scientific studies have found the link between microbiota composition and the health benefits of a nutritious diet, thus, raising the potential of personalized nutrition. 

So far, all studies demonstrating the effectiveness of personalized dietary recommendations have examined personal features, for example, gut microbiota compositions, in isolation.

However, there is a need for a more holistic approach to nutritional epidemiology that covers all the factors influencing the ability of the human body to derive maximum benefit from diet, for example, lifestyle factors. 

For example, in patients with diabetes, sedentary behavior is an established risk factor similar to a carbohydrate-rich diet. In addition, the gut microbiome of these patients might be modulating their blood glucose response to food intake.

Thus, nutritional studies examining the association of blood glucose response, specifically postprandial glucose response (PPGR) and insulin resistance (IR) that characterize type 2 diabetes, need data on all relevant factors, preferably in situ and continuously.

Thus, digital cohorts mark the beginning of a major development in the context of nutritional epidemiological and clinical studies. Since digital cohorts are a latest development, there is an urgent need to address questions regarding selection bias, study adherence, and data quality of digitally implemented studies. 

Another challenge to address is the time burden due to digital cohorts. They fatigue some participants, translating to lower adherence to study protocol or poor data quality.

About the study

The researchers attempted to address such questions and challenges by describing the protocol of the “Food and You” digital study and reporting study engagement data from enrollment to completion. They examined the study response and its completion rate. Furthermore, they assessed data quality by comparing nutritional and microbiota data of “Food and You” with data from traditional (on-site) studies.

This study had enrolment, preparatory, tracking, and follow-up phases. Following screening via a short questionnaire in the enrolment phase, a research team member enrolled an eligible participant into this study and instructed them to fill out a series of questionnaires on the “Food & You” website.

Next, they asked them to obtain MyFoodRepo mobile app, an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted nutrition tracking app specifically designed for this study, to monitor their food intake for at least three days (trial period).

All participants who completed the trial entered the study. The researchers provided them with the study material, which included a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor and material for stool collection.

During the tracking phase, all participants wore the CGM sensor and logged their food/beverage intake via the MyFoodRepo app.

Participants were divided into two sub-cohorts digitally: sub-cohort “Basic” cohort B) and sub-cohort “Cycle” (cohort C). These cohorts consisted of non-diabetic participants and non-diabetic women of reproductive age not on hormonal medication or contraceptives, respectively.

Study cohorts B and C answered two daily surveys for 14 and 28 days, respectively.

Per the study protocol, all participants consumed standardized breakfasts from days 2 to day 7 during the first week and refrained from physical activity for the next two hours.

Cohort B participants performed an oral glucose tolerance test on days 6 and 7, while Cohort C participants performed it on days 6 and 7 and days 21 and 22. Participants provided one stool sample during the tracking days. Eventually, participants uploaded their CGM data and physical activity levels on the study website. During the follow-up, all participants filled out a feedback questionnaire to log their overall experience.

Results and conclusion

This study had a high completion rate, with over 60% of enrolled participants completing it. In both cohorts, the completion rates of subjects with dietary restrictions were above 80%. Compared to other digital health studies, the retention rate for 14 and 28 days was also high in this study.

In both cohorts, except for physical activity and sleep, data availability was high for most indicators, e.g., diet, implying good adherence to the study. Besides response fatigue, technical issues with sensor devices or Apps might have impacted adherence to the study.

A study annotator reviewed every submitted data point on nutrition, implying data quality was good. The researchers found that all participants appropriately and timely logged their food intake, and missing inputs were low. The authors noted expected patterns concerning the time of food intake, glucose curves, etc., on weekdays and weekends.

Encouragingly, the MyFoodRepo App received overall positive feedback. It fetched dietary data with a high resolution of 315,126 food dishes constituting more than 46 million kcal, giving a reliable representation of the dietary patterns of over 1000 participants for at least two weeks. The researchers also had high-resolution data from 49,110 survey responses, 23,335 participant days, and 1,470,030 blood glucose measurements for analysis. 

Furthermore, the authors collected 1,024 stool samples for gut microbiota analysis. They attributed the observed variations in gut microbiota across two study cohorts, originating from Switzerland and the Netherlands to geographical differences. They used 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to analyze self-collected stool sample data. Further analyses of the microbiome and its link to other data are ongoing.

To summarize, it is likely that digital nutrition cohorts might become the preferred study design for large-scale personalized nutritional studies as they have the potential to help collect a large amount of high-quality data with temporal resolution.

*Important notice: medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Best Nutrition Certification Programs

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug