Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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MongoDB C100DBA : MongoDB Certified DBA Associate ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : C100DBA
Exam Name : MongoDB Certified DBA Associate
Vendor Name : MongoDB
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C100DBA test Format | C100DBA Course Contents | C100DBA Course Outline | C100DBA test Syllabus | C100DBA test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The MongoDB Certified DBA Associate (C100DBA) test is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of individuals in administering MongoDB databases. The certification validates the candidate's understanding of MongoDB architecture, configuration, monitoring, and performance optimization. Here are the details of the C100DBA exam:

- Number of Questions: The C100DBA test typically consists of multiple-choice questions and practical scenarios. The exact number of questions may vary, but it generally ranges from 60 to 90 questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the C100DBA test is usually around 90 minutes. However, the duration may vary depending on the specific test requirements and the test delivery platform.

Course Outline:
The C100DBA test covers the following key topics:

1. MongoDB Basics:
- Overview of MongoDB and NoSQL databases.
- Understanding MongoDB architecture and components.
- Installation and configuration of MongoDB.

2. Data Modeling and Indexing:
- Designing MongoDB schemas and collections.
- Creating and managing indexes for optimal query performance.
- Understanding data normalization and denormalization.

3. Querying and Aggregation:
- Querying MongoDB using the MongoDB Query Language (MQL).
- Aggregating data using the MongoDB Aggregation Framework.
- Optimizing query performance and using query hints.

4. Replication and High Availability:
- Configuring replica sets for data redundancy and high availability.
- Managing replication and failover processes.
- Performing backups and restores.

5. Sharding and Scalability:
- Scaling MongoDB databases using sharding.
- Configuring and managing sharded clusters.
- Monitoring and optimizing sharding performance.

6. Security and Authentication:
- Implementing security measures and access controls.
- Configuring authentication and user roles.
- Securing data at rest and in transit.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the C100DBA test are as follows:

- Assessing the candidate's understanding of MongoDB architecture, components, and installation.
- Evaluating the candidate's knowledge and skills in data modeling and index optimization.
- Testing the candidate's ability to query and aggregate data using MongoDB Query Language and Aggregation Framework.
- Verifying the candidate's proficiency in configuring replication, high availability, and backups.
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge of sharding, scalability, and performance optimization.
- Testing the candidate's understanding of MongoDB security measures and authentication mechanisms.

Exam Syllabus:
The C100DBA test covers the following topics:

1. MongoDB Basics
2. Data Modeling and Indexing
3. Querying and Aggregation
4. Replication and High Availability
5. Sharding and Scalability
6. Security and Authentication

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MongoDB Certified Latest Topics


Chris Christie

The latest on Chris Christie. A Republican and lawyer, Christie served as the Governor of New Jersey from 2010 to 2018. He rose to national attention for is handling of Hurricane Sandy, his brash style of leadership, and his failed 2016 presidential campaign. In 2023 he announced his attentions to run for the Republican nomination for president.

The presidential hopeful's opening remarks bore a striking similarity to those the former president used in 2004, sparking accusations they were lifted.

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Trump appeared to rule out participating in debates by pointing to his polling lead and citing Ronald Reagan.

By Darragh Roche On 8/19/23 at 10:18 AM EDT

The former New Jersey governor called the ex-president a "coward" a few hours after Trump lashed out at him on Truth Social.

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Christie, who has been critical of Trump, said he was uncomfortable with the latest indictment against former President Trump.

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Florida's governor polled in third place, behind Chris Christie, in the survey of GOP primary voters in New Hampshire.

By Andrew Stanton On 8/15/23 at 11:51 AM EDT

Trump used the "fat pig" term while seemingly feigning disapproval of the remark from the crowd during a campaign event in New Hampshire on Tuesday.

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A super PAC supporting the former president has spent more than $20 million in legal fees in cases relating to Trump so far this year.

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A new poll found more Republican respondents said the word "moral" better describes the Florida governor than Trump.

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In a column on Monday, Jim Jones accused the GOP of engaging in "a suicidal frenzy" by continuing to back Donald Trump.

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Ron DeSantis faced criticism for saying he "wasn't involved in" a new controversial history curriculum in the state's schools.

By Andrew Stanton On 7/23/23 at 4:48 PM EDT

"If your work appears to be incompetent and inexplicable, you need to explain it so they can have confidence in their justice system," Christie said.

By Thomas Kika On 7/23/23 at 2:08 PM EDT

The former president leads the pack in terms of donations in the second quarter for his 2024 campaign.

By Ewan Palmer On 7/17/23 at 8:12 AM EDT

"The fact is, he doesn't believe he won [in 2020]," the former New Jersey governor said about Donald Trump.

By Thomas Kika On 7/16/23 at 1:58 PM EDT

The "In Trump They Trust" author joined other conservatives in accusing Trump of "grifting" following a new report into his campaign finances.

By Andrew Stanton On 7/15/23 at 11:24 AM EDT

"He's obviously a troubled young man," Christie told broadcaster Piers Morgan of Harry in an interview on Thursday.

By James Crawford-Smith On 7/14/23 at 6:53 AM EDT

Trump "goes to bed every night thinking about the sound of that jail cell door closing behind him," Christie said.

By Andrew Stanton On 7/11/23 at 10:48 AM EDT

Alyssa Farah Griffin, Trump's White House communications director, suggested more GOP 2024 hopefuls need to directly attack the former president.

By Ewan Palmer On 7/10/23 at 8:29 AM EDT

The former governor of New Jersey also predicted on Saturday whether Trump would attend any presidential debates.

By Andrew Stanton On 7/2/23 at 10:01 AM EDT

The former New Jersey governor and 2024 hopeful was reacting to reports that Trump is diverting 2024 campaign donations to cover legal fees.

By Ewan Palmer On 6/29/23 at 4:18 AM EDT

Christie may not win. But can he help change voters' minds about who can?

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"He should take a look in the mirror every once in a while, maybe he'd drop the weight thing off of his list of criticisms," Christie said of Trump.

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"He has let us down because he's unwilling to take responsibility for any of the mistakes that were made, " the former New Jersey governor said about Trump.

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House Republicans recently threatened to hold Christopher Wray in contempt for not providing documents allegedly related to Joe and Hunter Biden.

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Republican presidential hopeful Vivek Ramaswamy was pressed by Fox News Sunday host Shannon Bream on whether his rhetoric could cause "lasting damage."

By Thomas Kika On 6/18/23 at 1:26 PM EDT

"These people have made the statements and defenses despite the facts in the indictment," a former Watergate prosecutor told Newsweek.

By Nick Mordowanec On 6/13/23 at 12:42 PM EDT



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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug