Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CA-Real-Estate exam Format | CA-Real-Estate Course Contents | CA-Real-Estate Course Outline | CA-Real-Estate exam Syllabus | CA-Real-Estate exam Objectives

Appropriate knowledge of the English language, including reading, writing, and spelling; and of arithmetical computations common to real estate and business opportunity practices.

An understanding of the principles of real estate and business opportunity conveyancing; the general purposes and general legal effect of agency contracts, deposit receipts, deeds, deeds of trust, chattel mortgages, bills of sale, mortgages, land contracts of sale, and leases; and of the principles of business, land economics and appraisals.

A general and fair understanding of the obligations between principal and agent; the principles of real estate and business opportunity transactions, and the code of business ethics pertaining thereto; as well as of the provisions of the law relating to real estate as administered by the Real Estate Commissioner.

- Classes of Property

- Property Characteristics

- Encumbrances

- Types of Ownership

- Descriptions of Property

- Government Rights in Land

- Public Controls

- Environmental Hazards and Regulations

- Private Controls

- Water Rights

- Special Categories of Land

- Law, Definition and Nature of Agency Relationships, Types of Agencies, and Agents

- Creation of Agency and Agency Agreements

- Responsibilities of Agent to Seller/Buyer as Principal

- Disclosure of Agency

- Disclosure of Acting as Principal or Other Interest

- Termination of Agency

- Commission and Fees

- Responsibilities of Agent to Non-Client Third Parties

- Value

- Methods of Estimating Value

- Financial Analysis

- General Concepts

- Types of Loans

- Sources of Financing

- Government Programs

- Mortgages/Deeds of Trust/Notes

- Financing/Credit Laws

- Loan Brokerage

- Types of Loan Originators

- Title Insurance

- Deeds

- Escrow

- Tax Aspects

- Special Processes

- Transfer through Court Supervision

- Types of Vesting

- Trust Account Management

- Fair Housing Laws

- Truth in Advertising

- Record Keeping Requirements

- Agency Supervision

- Permitted Activities of Unlicensed Sales Assistants

- DRE Jurisdiction and Disciplinary Actions

- Licensing, and Continuing Education Requirements and Procedures

- California Real Estate Recovery Fund

- General Ethics

- Technology

- Property Management

- Commercial/Industrial/Income Properties

- Specialty Areas

- Transfer Disclosure Statement

- Natural Hazard Disclosure Statements

- Disclosure of Material Facts Affecting Property Value

- Need for Inspection and Obtaining/Verifying Information

- Reports

- Servicing Diverse Populations

- General

- Listing Agreements

- Buyer Broker Agreements

- Offers/Purchase Contracts

- Agreements

- Promissory Notes/Securities

- Purchase/Lease Options

- Advanced Fee

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Real estate exam prep: The ultimate guide to acing your state’s real estate exam

If you’re considering getting your real estate license — congratulations! You’re only steps away from an exciting and rewarding new career that offers endless opportunities for growth and success. Their ultimate real estate exam prep guide will walk you through the steps to prepare for your state’s real estate license exam.

With their tips and techniques for studying and their strategies for exam taking (plus common mistakes to avoid), you’ll be on your way to acing your state’s exam, getting licensed, and representing clients.

Top picks for real estate exam prep Real Estate School Key Features Upgrades Available

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  • Initial exam to find areas of focus
  • Curated practice questions and recommendations for further study
  • Individual lessons by topic
  • Unlimited practice questions
  • Interactive dashboard to check your progress and create a study schedule
  • Exam readiness tracker
  • Digital flashcards, a real estate glossary, and a pass ensure are also included if you choose the premium package when signing up for a prelicensing course

    From $115

  • Readiness exam
  • Digital flashcards
  • Simulated exams
  • Audio review lessons
  • A Pass or Don’t Pay Guarantee, if you complete the exam prep program and don’t pass the exam on your first try
  • Exam Prep Live includes a webinar series on key concepts, and access to a live Q&A sessions with local instructors

    From $199

  • Exam prep course delivered by video or live online
  • Access to the drill and QBank for unlimited practice questions
  • Real estate exam prep book
  • Lecture outlines, multiple-choice and true-or-false questions
  • Individiual add-ons such as digital flashcards, real estate terms audio, and a real estate math course Real estate exam prep facts Real estate exam cheat sheet 

    Format: Typically multiple-choice, with 75-150 questions. 

    Time Allotted: 2-3.5 hours. 

    Sections: National and state sections, both scored individually. 

    Passing Rates: Most states require a minimum overall score of 70%, but each state varies.

    Exam Retakes: Exams or exam sections can be retaken, states vary on the required time in between retakes or the fee to retake an exam.

    First, let’s review the structure of most state real estate licensing exams. Real estate exams are typically in multiple-choice format. The number of questions and the time allotted to sit the exam vary by state. Real estate exams are typically divided into two sections: national real estate principles and practices, and state real estate laws. 

    Both sections are scored individually, and in most states, you’ll need to achieve a passing grade in both sections to pass the exam. Passing grades are also determined by each state. Luckily, if you happen to stumble on one section, you can often retake one portion of the exam. Stay confident and stay focused, and you’ll be on your way to mastering the real estate exam.

    SAVE 30% on all prelicensing courses with The CE Shop using promo code HW30. Click to learn more about their prelicensing course packages and exam Prep Edge.

    Before you study: real estate exam prep tips

    Before you sit down to study for the real estate exam, do as the experts do to set yourself up for success. With their research-based tips, you’ll be on the path to mastering the exam.

  • Create a study schedule

    Decades of research from the American Psychology Association shows that students who create study plans and space out their study sessions come out with higher test scores. [1] Designate specific blocks of time each day to focus solely on studying for the exam. Consistency is key, so make sure to stick to your schedule. Instead of long chunks of time, opt for 30-minute sessions over a longer period of time.

  • Gather quality study materials

    Invest in reliable study materials that fit your learning style such as online courses, digital flashcards, videos, and practice exams. Use a critical eye to find exam pass rates on real estate schools’ websites to find assurance that their exam prep materials help students succeed on the real estate exam.

  • Find practice exams

    The Learning Strategies Center at Cornell University confirms that mimicking exam conditions helps immensely in retrieving the information at exam time.[2] Practice makes perfect, so take advantage of real estate practice exams to assess your strengths and weaknesses and identify areas to review.

  • While you study: get the most out of your real estate exam prep time

    Now that you’re set for success, let’s explore some study hacks to maximize your study time. 

  • Vary your learning resources

    Don’t stick to just one study tool, keep your brain sharp by varying the ways you’re taking in information. Take advantage of exam prep tools like flashcards, videos, summaries, and practice questions. Harvard Health also suggests to quiz yourself often while you study, and ask yourself why and how concepts connect to process the meaning of all you’re studying.[3]

  • Form study groups

    Collaborating with others who are also prepping for the real estate exam can be highly beneficial. You’ll be exposed to repetition of concepts through another person’s lens, which will help you synthesize your own learning. Plus, you can tackle challenging Topics together, share resources, and quiz each other.

  • Teach others

    The success of teaching others as a means of better understanding material yourself has been proven so many times over it has a name – the protégé effect. Studies show you’ll learn with a deeper understanding if you think you’ll have to reteach it later.[4] Plus, teaching others will reveal gaps in your understanding you can catch before exam time.

    Check out their Free real estate practice exam + 7 study hacks to ace the real estate exam. They share their top study hacks and strategies for success.

  • Common mistakes to avoid during the real estate exam

    Many people make avoidable mistakes that can lead to failing the exam. Here are some common mistakes to avoid as you prepare for and take the real estate exam.

  • Not practicing the questions carefully

    Rushing through questions or assuming you know what the question is asking can lead to answering incorrectly. Be sure to read each question carefully and ask yourself if you fully understand what is being asked before answering.

  • Guessing without eliminating options

    Another mistake people make on the real estate exam is guessing without eliminating options. If you are unsure of the answer, try to eliminate the options that you know are incorrect. This will help increase your chances of guessing correctly and can prevent you from getting tripped up by trick questions.

  • Forgetting to review your answers

    Taking the time to review your answers can help catch any mistakes or oversights you may have made. You can also flag questions you weren’t entirely sure about and return to them later so you can capitalize on your confidence when you see questions you know the answers to.

  • Strategies for answering different types of questions on the real estate exam

    By understanding the unique demands of each question type, you can confidently tackle any type of question that comes your way.

  • Multiple-choice questions

    Pay attention to keywords and the stem of the question, and use logic and reasoning – apply your knowledge and critical thinking skills to arrive at the most accurate answer. Watch out for options that include words like “always,” “never,” or “every,” as they tend to be incorrect.

  • True or false questions

    Start by looking for qualifiers and exceptions, since words like “usually,” “sometimes,” or “most” can change the validity of the statement. Next, be cautious with double negatives and take your time to decipher the intended meaning. Finally, it’s common to make assumptions, but it’s important to base your answer solely on the information provided in the statement.

  • Scenario-based questions

    Start by scoping out the key details; highlight important facts, figures, and relationships that are relevant to the question. Next, put yourself in the shoes of the parties involved and evaluate the situation from different angles. Lastly, try to avoid overthinking or overcomplicating, and trust your gut.

  • Helpful links Frequently asked questions
  • What is the format of the real estate exam?

    Real estate exams are usually administered on a computer at designated testing centers. Some states may offer both computer-based and paper-based options, but the computer-based format is more common. They typically consist of multiple-choice questions and have two portions: a national portion and a state-specific portion.

  • How hard is the real estate exam?

    The passing score for the real estate exam varies by state, but most look for an overall score of 70%. Real estate exams can be challenging, but doable with good preparation. You can find your state’s real estate regulatory board website by finding it through the Association of Real Estate Law Officials website.

  • What happens if I fail one part of the exam?

    If you fail one part of the exam (either the national or state-specific section), you often have the opportunity to retake only the section you failed. Check your state’s policies, as retake rules vary in each state, and you may need to pay an additional fee or wait a specific amount of time before retaking the exam.

  • How many questions are on the real estate exam?

    While each state’s real estate exam varies, the exam typically consists of multiple-choice questions that can vary between 70 and 150 questions. The allotted time to complete the exam can typically be between 2 and 3.5 hours. Some exams may also include scenario-based questions or case studies.

  • How do I pass the real estate exam?

    To prepare for the real estate exam, you can create a study plan, use study materials such as textbooks, flashcards, and practice exams, consider enrolling in a real estate exam prep course, and join study groups for collaborative learning.

  • Are there requirements to take the real estate exam?

    Yes! Eligibility requirements vary by state. Generally, you must be at least 18 years old and a U.S. citizen or permanent resident. In most states, you must complete a set number of hours of prelicensing education at an approved school, provide valid identification, and pay an exam fee before being eligible to take the exam. You may also have to submit to a background check to get licensed. Check with your state’s real estate commission for exact requirements or find your state on their Real Estate Education landing page.

  • What happens after passing the real estate exam?

    After passing the real estate exam, you can apply for your real estate license with your state’s regulatory authority. You’ll often be mailed your real estate license (and a pocket card). Once you have your license, you can start working as a real estate professional, such as a real estate agent or broker. You’ll need to find a brokerage to sponsor you or to work under.

  • The full picture

    The real estate exam is a significant milestone on your journey to becoming a successful real estate agent or broker. By following their guide, you can unlock the secrets to mastering the real estate exam.

    Remember to stay focused, maintain a positive mindset, and trust in your preparation. With dedication and perseverance, they have no doubt you’ll ace the real estate exam and embark on a fulfilling career in real estate.

    We’re here to help you launch your career with helpful tips, tools, strategies and product recommendations from experienced real estate industry professionals.

    Article sources:


    Fundamentals of Engineering exam

    When can I take the FE exam?

    To be eligible to take the NCEES Fundamentals of Engineering exam, you must meet the following requirements:

  • Completed 90 credits
  • Achieved senior status
  • Be enrolled in mostly 400-level courses toward your engineering degree
  • Be enrolled in the ENGR 490 section assigned to your major department
  • Section 1002-Chemical & Materials Science Engr
  • Section 1003-Civil & Environmental Engr
  • Section 1004-Electrical & Biomedical Engr
  • Section 1005-Mechanical Engr
  • Section 1006-Geological Engr
  • Section 1007-Metallurgical & Mining Engr
  • For seniors ready to take the FE exam, you will still need to register for ENGR 490 the semester you plan on taking the exam. Please be mindful that if you plan on graduating in the semester you take the exam, you will need to take the exam no later than prep day to allow for adequate processing time (uploading your exam proof). Otherwise, this may delay your diploma.

    CSE students are not required to take the FE exam. 

    The exam will be held at any NCEES-approved testing facility year round at a testing day and time that you choose. Do not wait to sign up for an exam date! If you choose to wait to sign up for the test in the middle of or later in the semester, the testing center dates will most likely be FULL! This may cause a delay, or even denial, in receiving your diploma if you are taking the exam in your last semester. Yes, it is an expensive test, but isn't it more expensive to have wait an extra semester for your diploma?

    How do I sign up for the FE exam?

    Register for the exam on the NCEES website.

    How do I prepare for the FE exam?

    You may access and review the current FE Supplied Reference Manual, the same type you'll be using during the examination, on the NCEES website.

    Study sessions are often organized by the student chapters of ASCE and ASME once a semester. Emails will be sent to students enrolled in ENGR 490, and flyers will be posted on the College's Facebook page. There is often a small cost in order to attend each session.

    Please contact Anna Ramirez, annaramirez@unr.edu, with any questions about review sessions.

    Once you've passed the FE exam

    Go to the Nevada State Board of Engineering website and apply for Engineer Intern certification. Instructions on how to apply can be found on their website.

    Ready to take the early PE exam?

    More information about the early PE exam can be found on the Nevada State Board of Engineers website.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug