Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CBAP
Exam Name : Certified Business Analysis Professional (CBAP v3) 2022
Vendor Name : IIBA
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Business analysis planning and monitoring 14%
Elicitation and collaboration 12%
Requirements life cycle management 15%
Strategy analysis 15%
Requirements analysis and design definition 30%
Solution evaluation 14%

Plan Business Analysis Approach
- Expert: Creates rules for selecting the business analysis approach.
- Expert: Guides practice in determining the level of business analysis formality.
- Expert: Creates rules for identifying business anlaysis activities.
- Expert: Advanced knowledge of timing of business analysis work.
- Expert: Advanced knowledge of assessing complexity, size, and risk factors.
- Expert: Guides practice in gaining stakeholder understanding and agreement.

Key behaviours include:
Methodology Knowledge: Recognized by colleagues as an authority in several analysis methodologies, and:
asked by leadership to spearhead change in methodologies.
asked by peers for advice and support.
Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication: Consistently uncover emotional drivers of stakeholders and develop messaging accordingly.
Listening: Coach others to use active listening and discovery skills to understand “real” issues/needs and build chemistry.
Plan Stakeholder Engagement
Expert: Guides practice in performing stakeholder analysis.
Expert: Advanced knowledge of defining the required level of stakeholder collaboration.
Expert: Advanced knowledge in identifying appropriate stakeholder communication needs.

Key behaviours include:
Systems Thinking: Able to clearly communicate concepts to relevant stakeholders, as they relate to different aspects of the enterprise.
Organization Knowledge: Develop a network of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) needed to work within the organization to get things done.
Listening: Coach others to use active listening and discovery skills to understand “real” issues/needs and build chemistry.
Plan Business Analysis Governance
Expert: Advanced knowledge in identifying an effective decision-making process.
Expert: Guides practice in developing an effective change control processes.
Expert: Guides practice in planning an effective prioritizaion process.
Expert: Advanced knowledge of planning an effective approval process.

Key behaviours include:
Decision Making: Coach others on how to assess situations in order to make the most informed decisions about which course of action to pursue.
Organization Knowledge: Develop a network of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) needed to work within the organization; recognized by colleagues as someone who can get things done.
Methodology Knowledge: Recognized by colleagues as an authority in several analysis methodologies, and: asked by leadership to spearhead change in methodologies.
asked by peers for advice and support.
Plan Business Analysis Information Management
Expert: Guides practice in determining how to oganize business analysis information.
Expert: Guides practice in determining the appropriate level of abstraction.
Expert: Creates rules on planning the traceability approach.
Expert: Creates rules on planning for requirements reuse.
Expert: Guides practice in determining how to store and access business analysis information.
Expert: Creates rules for identifying attributes for requirements and design management.

Key behaviours include:
Organization Knowledge: Develop a network of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) needed to work within the organization; recognized by colleagues as someone who can get things done.
Methodology Knowledge: Recognized by colleagues as an authority in several analysis methodologies.
Business Analysis Tools & Technology: Coach others on how to effectively use business analysis tools.

Identify Business Analysis Performance Improvements
Expert: Advanced knowledge of reporting on business analysis performance.
Expert: Advanced knowledge of identifying business analysis performance measures.
Expert: Guides practice in assessing business analysis performance measures.
Expert: Guides practice in recommending business analysis performance improvements.

Key behaviours include:
Creative Thinking: Recognized by colleagues as an authority in fostering creative thinking to identify innovative solutions.
Learning: Recognized by colleagues as an authority in learning quickly and willingly.
Adaptability: Consistently evaluates what worked, what did not, and what could be done differently next time.

Chapter 4: Elicitation and Collaboration
Prepare for Elicitation
Conduct Elicitation
Confirm Elicitation Results
Communicate Business Analysis Information
Manage Stakeholder Collaboration

Chapter 5: Requirements Life Cycle Management
Trace Requirements
Maintain Requirements
Prioritize Requirements
Assess Requirements Changes
Approve Requirements

Chapter 6: Strategy Analysis
Analyze Current State
Define Future State
Assess Risks
Define Change Strategy

Chapter 7: Requirements Analysis and Design Definition
Specify and Model Requirements
Verify Requirements
Validate Requirements
Define Requirements Architecture
Define Design OPtions
Analyze Potential Value and Recommend Solution

Chapter 8: Solution Evaluation
Measure Solution Performance
Analyze Performance Measures
Assess Solution Limitations
Assess Enterprise Limitations
Recommend Actions to Increase Solution Value



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug