Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CHAD
Exam Name : Certified Heroku Architecture Designer
Vendor Name : Salesforce
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CHAD exam Format | CHAD Course Contents | CHAD Course Outline | CHAD exam Syllabus | CHAD exam Objectives

Salesforce Heroku Architecture Designer exam.
Exam Questions : 60 multiple-choice/multiple-select questions
Exam Duration : 105 minutes
Passing score: 72%
Delivery options: Proctored exam delivered onsite at a testing center or in an online proctored environment. Click here for information on scheduling an exam.
Prerequisite: None

About the Salesforce Heroku Architecture Designer Credential
The Salesforce Certified Heroku Architecture Designer credential is designed for individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and extensive experience with architecting scalable solutions, deploying and managing apps, and managing teams and build-workflows on Heroku—specifically, Heroku Enterprise. This credential is targeted for a Heroku Consultant or Partner, who has an awareness of app dev best practices and how they apply to Heroku, an understanding of how to build scalable apps on Heroku, and knowledge of Heroku use cases and how to apply Heroku best practices.

Audience Description: Salesforce Certified Heroku Architecture Designer
The Salesforce Certified Heroku Architecture Designer exam is intended for an individual who has architectural knowledge of the Heroku platform and its capabilities, including:

Designing, building, deploying and scaling Heroku apps, managing and operating apps, teams, and build infrastructure Knowing when to use Heroku Enterprise, and understanding the security and trust options available in Heroku and Heroku Enterprise Utilizing add-ons to extend applications, in particular Heroku Postgres and Apache Kafka on Heroku. Integrating Heroku apps with Salesforce data via database, API and event systems, including Heroku Connect.
The Salesforce Certified Heroku Architecture Designer exam is intended for an individual who has a minimum of two years of experience and skills across the Heroku domains, including:
- Building and deploying apps on the Heroku platform
- Architecting scalable solutions
- Using add-ons from the Elements Marketplace
- Architecting solutions using Heroku Postgres, Heroku Redis, Dataclips, and Heroku Connect
- Prescribing a third-party add-on and add-on sharing
- Using Heroku Private Space Peering and VPN Connections
- Understanding Private Space Runtime versus Common Runtime
- Understanding how Heroku Enterprise can Strengthen a system's architecture
- Architecting solutions using Heroku Shield, and the benefits of various certifications Heroku has
- Architecting solutions using Enterprise Teams
- Architecting an application using the Twelve-Factor methodology correctly
- Constructing solutions for building a microservices architecture
- Building architectures that use Apache Kafka on Heroku
- Integrating Heroku apps with the Salesforce Lightning Platform
- A candidate for this exam is not expected to:
- Know how to architect Salesforce Lightning Platform solutions.

Exam Outline
The Salesforce Certified Heroku Architecture Designer exam measures a candidates knowledge and skills related to the following objectives. A candidate should have hands-on experience with Heroku Architecture and have demonstrated the application of each of the features/functions below.

Heroku Platform: 10%
Demonstrate an understanding of the basics behind building and deploying apps on Heroku, including the role of buildpacks in slug creation.
Architect scalable solutions that are performant even during high traffic spikes.
Architect and deploy solutions using add-ons and other components from the Elements Marketplace, including various add-ons, buildpacks, and Heroku Buttons.

Data: 17%
Demonstrate knowledge of Heroku Postgres, including data handling, security, and common use cases for follower databases. Describe the use cases of Dataclips.
Architect solutions using Apache Kafka on Heroku to facilitate streaming communication between applications, services and/or functions.
Architect solutions using Heroku Redis.
Demonstrate the ability to prescribe a third-party add-on and add-on sharing, when appropriate.

Security: 15%
Construct architectures which leverage Heroku to achieve different security certifications.
Recommend Heroku Private Space Peering or VPN Connections for appropriate use cases.
Recommend when an app should run in the Private Space Runtime versus the Common Runtime.

Heroku Enterprise: 28%
Demonstrate how features of Heroku Enterprise can Strengthen a system's architecture.
Recommend networking solutions that use Heroku Private Spaces or the Common Runtime, appropriately.
Describe the compliance features of Heroku Shield.
Describe the features of Enterprise Teams.

Architect Applications: 15%
Recommend architectures that use the twelve-factor app methodology correctly.
Construct solutions for creating an orchestration layer for building a microservices architecture using Apache Kafka on Heroku.

Integrations: 15%
Recommend architectures that use Heroku Connect appropriately, including the correct use of External IDs.
Recommend techniques to integrate Heroku apps with the Salesforce Lightning Platform, and understand when to apply particular techniques.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug