Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification

A Council for Six Sigma Certification (CSSC) Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt is an individual that possesses a thorough understanding of enhanced problem-solving skills, with an emphasis on the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Boost and Control) model. The Green Belt Certification designation also reflects the knowledge by the individual to serve as a trained team member within his or her function-specific area of the organization. This focus allows the Green Belt to work on small, carefully defined Six Sigma projects, requiring less than a Black Belts full-time commitment to Six Sigma throughout the organization.



The Council for Sigma Certification (CSSC) offers 2 different paths to earning a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification. Individuals who have already received training, and feel that they have significant understanding of the syllabus covered in the Green Belt Certification “Body of Knowledge,” can simply sit for their standard comprehensive examination.



Individuals who are instead using one of their free Self-Study Guides, either independently or in conjunction with a training provider, can sit for several short exams as they progress through the different sections (as opposed to a single large comprehensive exam).



As an added benefit, those seeking the second option towards Certification would be able to obtain the various levels of their standard certifications (White Belt, Yellow Belt, Green Belt, and Black Belt) as they progress through their certification journey, without incurring any additional examination fees.



Either path will award their official certification(s). Either path is an open-book and non-timed examination format.

We feel the Multiple exam path to be the most beneficial option for those who are newer to the methodology, professionals looking for a solid refresher, or those candidates who would like to reduce their overall examination/certification costs.



To successfully obtain the professional designation of a CSSC Certified Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSC-CSSGB) issued by The Council for Six Sigma Certification, candidates must successfully complete their CSSC Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification exam and achieve a score of 280 points (or higher) out of a total 400 possible points.



There are no prerequisites for taking the CSSC Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Exam. Once the examination exam fee is paid, applicants will have 1 year to successfully pass the exam.


There is no project requirement for this Certification. However, this certification is a prerequisite for any individual wishing to pursue their Level II Green Belt Certification, which does have a project participation requirement.



After successfully fulfilling the certification requirements, candidates will receive an Official CSSC Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification issued by The Council for Six Sigma Certification, the most respected accrediting organization in the Six Sigma industry.



Our certifications have no expiration date. They strongly feel that certifications that require “renewals” only serve to increase the profits of the certification providers instead of benefiting the individual. Or put another way, a Masters Degree in Business does not expire… why would your professional certification=>



Candidates who would like to obtain a more accurate certification date can always resit for the certification exam at any time (often for less money than a provider would charge for a “renewal”).



Upon completion of the requirements, individuals are issued a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification in an electronic form. All certifications contain a verifiable certification number and the certification holder is added to the Council for Six Sigma Certification Official Register.



1. Introduction to Six Sigma (4.7 Hours)

• Higher Standards for Higher Performance

• Input Determines Output

• Six Sigma Defined

• Success Stories

• The Sigma Level

• The 99.9% Problem

• Calculating the Sigma Level – Toolset

• DNA of a Champion

• Six Sigma Framework

• DMAIC – The Six Sigma Improvement Process

• Lean and DMAIC

• Thought Process Mapping – Toolset

• Organizing for Success

• Working Relationships

• Critical Success Factors

• Whats in a Name=>

• Exercises and Quiz

2. Define I – The Value Stream (7.7 Hours)

• Introduction to Define

• Process Thinking

• The Source of Value

• Value Stream Leverage

• Process Mapping – Overview

• Process Mapping (SIPOC) Toolset

• Flow Charts

• Value-Added Flow Charts

• Spaghetti Charts

• Value Stream Mapping Toolset

• Pareto Chart Toolset

• Project Selection Toolset

• Project Charter Toolset

• Project Tracking Toolset

• Exercises and Quiz

3. Define II – Voice of the Customer (7.4 Hours)

• Introduction to Voice of the Customer

• Focus on the Customer

• Understanding Customer Requirements

• Where to Go for Customer Requirements

• Conducting Surveys

• More on Surveys

• Surveys – Sampling Frame

• Structuring Survey Questions

• The Degree of Uncertainty in Sampling

• Guideline for Margin of Error

• Affinity Diagram Toolset

• CTQC Tree Diagram Toolset

• Operational Definition Toolset

• Voice of the Customer as Specifications

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

4. Measure I (9.9 Hours)

• Introduction to Measure

• Measurements

• Discrete vs. Continuous Measurements

• Measurement Subjects

• Measurement as a Process

• The Analysis of Measurement Systems

• The Requirements of Measurement Systems

• Gage R & R

• MSA – Graphing

• Attribute Measurement System Analysis

• Calibration of Measurement Systems

• Collecting Data

• Developing a Sampling Plan

• Baseline Performance

• Derivative Performance Metrics – Throughput Yield

• Derivative Performance Metrics – Rolled Throughput Yield

• The Sigma Level Revisited

• Exercises and Quiz

5. Measure II – Charting Process Behavior (12.4 Hours)

• Introduction to Measure II

• Trend Chart Toolset

• Histogram Toolset

• Quantifying Process Variability

• SPC – Introduction and Background

• SPC – Introduction to Control Charts

• SPC – Control Chart Limits

• SPC – More On Control Limits

• Implementing SPC

• SPC Chart Selection

• Rational Subgrouping Toolset

• X and Moving Range Charts – Toolset

• Attribute Control Chart Toolset

• X-bar and R Chart Toolset

• Related Theory

• Process Capability Toolset

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

6. Analyze I – Possible Root Cause (10.2 Hours)

• Introduction to Analyze

• Finding the Root Cause

• Cause & Effect Diagram Toolset

• Alternative to the Cause & Effect Diagram

• 5-Why, 1-How

• A Combination of 5-Why, Pareto, and Trend Charts

• Scatter Plot Toolset

• Correlation and Regression Analysis

• Multiple Regression Toolset

• Logistic Regression Toolset

• Factors in Determining trial Size

• Estimating Population Mean

• Exercises and Quiz

7. Analyze II – Hypothesis Testing (13.3 Hours)

• Introduction to Analyze II

• Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

• The Process on Trial

• The Hypothesis – Accept or Reject=>

• Types of Error

• Hypothesis Testing

• Confidence Intervals

• Treatment Comparisons – Control Charts

• Comparing Two Proportions – Z-test Toolset

• Comparing Two Means – t-test Toolset

• Comparing Multiple Means – ANOVA/F-test Toolset

• Comparing Two Variances – F-test Toolset

• Confidence Intervals – Least Significant Difference

• Hypothesis Testing Learning Lab

• Exercises and Quiz

8. Analyze III – DOE (5.8 Hours)

• Design of Experiments – Introduction

• Design of Experiments

• Design of Experiments – Components

• Design of Experiments – Purpose

• Design of Experiments – Process

• Blocking

• Blocking and Tackling

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

9. Boost (10.7 Hours)

• Introduction to Boost

• Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

• Benchmarking

• Brainstorming

• Narrowing Down the List of Ideas

• FMEA Toolset

• Error-proofing

• Continuous Flow Toolset

• Quick Changeover Toolset

• Pull Scheduling

• Prioritizing and Selecting a Solution

• Corrective Action Matrix

• Piloting a Solution

• System Dynamics

• Characteristics of Dynamic Systems

• System Dynamics Examples

• Another System Dynamics Example

• System Dynamics Application

• System Dynamics Summary

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

10. Control (6.5 Hours)

• Introduction to Control

• More on SPC

• The Process Control Plan

• More on FMEA

• Visual Control

• 5-S Approach

• Total Productive Maintenance

• TPM Objectives & Benefits

• TPM Metrics

• TPM Core Elements

• TPM Maintenance Activities

• Best Practices and Lessons Learned

• Documenting Process Changes

• Ending the Project

• Progress Review

• Exercises and Quiz

11. Leading Teams and Leading Change (4.8 Hours)

• Leadership Introduction

• Fueling the Improvement Engine

• Leadership Characteristics

• Practice, Study and Reflection – Learning by Modeling

• Leading Teams

• Developing an Effective Team

• Improving Team Development

• Leading Change

• Leading Change – Continued

• Success Factors for Effective Change Management

• Exercises and Quiz

• Course Completion

• The Lean Six Sigma Journey



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug