Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CPP-Institute CPA-CPP : CPA - C++ Certified Associate Programmer exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CPA-CPP
Exam Name : CPA - C++ Certified Associate Programmer
Vendor Name : CPP-Institute
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CPA-CPP exam Format | CPA-CPP Course Contents | CPA-CPP Course Outline | CPA-CPP exam Syllabus | CPA-CPP exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The CPA-CPP (C++ Certified Associate Programmer) test is administered by the CPP Institute. It is designed to evaluate the knowledge and skills of individuals in the C++ programming language. Here is a detailed overview of the test, including the number of questions and time, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The CPA-CPP test consists of multiple-choice questions that assess your understanding of C++ programming concepts and principles. The total number of questions and the time limit for the test may vary, but typically, the test includes:

- Number of Questions: Approximately 60 to 80 multiple-choice questions
- Time Limit: 90 to 120 minutes

Course Outline:
The CPA-CPP course covers a wide range of syllabus related to C++ programming. The course outline may include, but is not limited to, the following areas:

1. Introduction to C++:
- Basic syntax and structure of C++
- Data types and variables
- Operators and expressions

2. Control Structures:
- Decision-making statements (if-else, switch)
- Looping statements (for, while, do-while)
- Conditional and logical operators

3. Functions:
- Defining and calling functions
- Function parameters and return types
- Function overloading

4. Arrays and Strings:
- Declaring and accessing arrays
- Multidimensional arrays
- Manipulating strings

5. Pointers:
- Understanding pointer variables
- Pointer arithmetic
- Dynamic memory allocation

6. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Concepts:
- Classes and objects
- Inheritance and polymorphism
- Encapsulation and data hiding

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the CPA-CPP test include:
- Evaluating the candidate's understanding of the fundamental concepts and syntax of the C++ programming language.
- Assessing the ability to write correct and efficient C++ code.
- Demonstrating proficiency in solving programming problems using C++.

Exam Syllabus:
The CPA-CPP test syllabus covers a wide range of C++ programming topics, including, but not limited to:
- C++ language basics (syntax, data types, operators)
- Control structures (decision-making and looping)
- Functions and parameter passing
- Arrays and strings
- Pointers and dynamic memory allocation
- Classes, objects, and OOP concepts
- Inheritance and polymorphism
- Exception handling
- Standard Template Library (STL)

Note: The specific content and emphasis within each syllabu may vary, and it is recommended to consult the official CPP Institute materials or authorized study resources for the most accurate and up-to-date syllabus.

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CPP-Institute Certified Practice Test


Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST)

Becoming an ISA Certified Control Systems Technician® (CCST®) is a mark of career excellence that affirms your commitment to quality and demonstrates your expertise and knowledge of automation and control systems. It provides a non-biased, third-party, objective exam and confirmation of your skills as a control systems technician.

Who Are CCSTs?

Working in process automation and manufacturing automation industries around the globe, CCSTs are an elite group of automation and control technicians who have proven they possess an extensive knowledge of automation and control systems. CCSTs calibrate, document, troubleshoot, and repair/replace instrumentation for systems that measure and control level, temperature, pressure, flow, and other process variables. They are skilled in pneumatic, mechanical, and electronic instrumentation. They understand process control loops and process control systems, including computer-based systems. 

What is the difference between the CCST program and the NICET Certification? 

NICET, the National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies, offers a four-level certification program for instrumentation engineering technologists. The CCST program is designed specifically for the control systems technician, and is more application focused.

CCST Levels

There are three levels of certification offered for control systems technicians. All certification levels provide a non-biased, third-party, objective exam and confirmation of an automation technician’s knowledge of and experience with project start-up, commissioning, loop-check, project organization, planning, and documentation.

CCST Level 1 Logo Certified Control Systems Technician — Level 1

With a five-year minimum education and experience requirement, earning this certification confirms that you possess vast knowledge of calibration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting.

CCST Specialist Level 2 logo Certified Control Systems Technician Specialist — Level 2

With a seven-year minimum education and experience requirement, this certification demonstrates Level one knowledge, as well as some knowledge of administration, supervision, or management.

CCST Master Level 3 logo Certified Control Systems Technician Master — Level 3

This certification demonstrates level one and two knowledge, including an extensive knowledge of administration, supervision, or management, and has a 13-year minimum education, training, and/or experience requirement.

CCST Certification Requirements

To become an ISA CCST, you must meet certain education and work experience requirements, pass an exam, and commit to the ISA Code of Ethics. Learn more about CCST requirements.

CCST Body of Knowledge (BOK)

The CCST BOK defines automation project domains, the tasks within the domains, and the knowledge and skills required to complete the tasks. CCST exams cover four major domains that have been organized based on the findings in a latest CCST job task analysis study. To see a complete explanation of the domains and the percentage of exam questions included from each domain, visit the CCST Body of Knowledge page.

How to Apply

There is no application form to fill out for CCAST certification. Simply complete the following steps:

  • Commit to the ISA Code of Conduct.
  • Meet CCST certification criteria, qualifications, and conditions.
  • Acknowledge that you are subject to a random application verification audit.
  • Agree to provide the supporting documents proving your qualifications if you are audited.
  • Pay the exam fee.
  • Upon paying the exam fee, the application process is complete, and you have acknowledged that you meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3.

    Next Steps
  • Watch for an email from coming from their testing provider, Meazure Learning (candidatesupport@meazurelearning.com). Expect to receive it 15 days before your exam window. The email will include information about how to schedule your exam online or at a test center. NOTE: If you have attended a CCST review course and wish to apply for CCST certification, you must also meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3. Since the application fee is included in the cost of all CCST review courses, you will receive an exam invitation within three business days after completing the review course.
  • Schedule and take your exam. You will be notified whether you pass or not immediately upon completing the exam.
  • Watch for an email summarizing your exam results. If you pass your exam, you will also receive your digital badge and you will be listed in the ISA Credential Directory.
  • Watch for an email from certification@isa.org regarding an audit. You will only receive this email if you have been randomly selected to be audited. If you do not receive this email, you do not need to do anything. Audits are conducted three times per year, so it may take several months after completing your exam to receive an email if you have been selected for an audit.
  • Click the appropriate button below to add the exam fee to your cart.

    Add CCST — Level 1 exam Fee to Cart    

    Add CCST Specialist — Level 2 exam Fee to Cart    

    Add CCST Master — Level 3 exam Fee to Cart

    About the Exam

    You can take any of the CCST exams online from your office or home if the testing area meets the requirements and your computer meets specifications. You can also take the exam at a Scantron test center. The CCST exams are multiple choice and have different time durations and questions.

    Exam Questions Duration Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST) — Level 1 150 4 hours Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST) Specialist — Level 2 125 3 hours Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST) Master — Level 3 150 4 hours  

    Learn more about Certification Exams and Testing.

    How to Prepare

    Want help preparing for a CCST exam? They recommend taking the review course for the certification which you are applying. When you enroll in a CCST review course, the application fee is included in the course price. You will automatically receive an exam invitation after you start the course. By paying for the review course, you are confirming that you are aware of, have met and can document the requirements for the certification level for which you are applying. Visit the Prepare for the CCST Exam page to view and select the course format that best suits your needs.

    ISA has developed an extensive library of training courses, study guides and reference publications that are built around the technologies and syllabus covered on the CCST exams. These resources have been developed and reviewed by subject matter experts. Learn how to prepare for a CCST exam.

    Reference to Standards and Codes

    The aspects of automation covered on the CCST exam reflect the tasks performed in the range of practice settings throughout the United States. Familiarity with the following standards and codes is recommended. download the Reference to Standards and Codes (PDF).

  • ISA Standards
  • IEEE Standards
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards
  • National Electrical Code (NEC)
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Codes and Federal Regulations
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Standards
  • US Food and Drug Administration Regulations
  • American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards
  • For International applicants, note that the validation study for the exams was done in the United States, so there may be questions on the exam that reference US standards and codes.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug