Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CPEA test Format | CPEA Course Contents | CPEA Course Outline | CPEA test Syllabus | CPEA test Objectives


BEAC issues the Certified Professional Environmental Auditor (CPEA®) designation. The CPEA credential demonstrates ones understanding of todays ever changing environmental, health & safety regulations. The CPEA designation is fully accredited by the Council on Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards (CESB). BEAC CPEAs qualify for Professional Membership status with the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE).



Includes identifying environmental aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with environmental laws and regulations, and/or applying professional environmental compliance auditing practices.



Requirements

Education

​Bachelors degree or higher.



Professional Experience

​Applicants for certification must have four years of relevant work experience as defined below.



Audit Experience

​Applicants must perform a minimum of 20 environmental compliance audits for a minimum of 100 days within the four years prior to certification. Of the 100 days, a minimum of 20 days must be conducted on site.



Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training as outlined in the Definition of Relevant Experience and Training Elements outlined below and may be internal or external to the applicant's organization.



Definitions of Relevant Environmental Compliance Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training must include identifying environmental aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with environmental laws and regulations, and/or applying professional environmental compliance auditing practices. It may include any combination of: environmental science and technology; environmental management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of environmental laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of environmental compliance; environmental standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of environmental compliance and compliance implementation.



Health & Safety

Includes identifying health and safety aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with safety-related laws and regulations, and/or applying professional health & safety auditing practices.



Requirements

Education

​Bachelors degree or higher.



Professional Experience
​Applicants for certification must have four years of relevant work experience as defined below.



Audit Experience

​Applicants must perform a minimum of 20 health and safety audits for a minimum of 100 days within the four years prior to certification. Of the 100 days, a minimum of 20 days must be conducted on site.



Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training in relevant experience elements identified below.


Definition of Relevant Health & Safety Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training must include identifying health and safety aspects and impacts, assessing compliance with safety-related laws and regulations, and/or applying professional health & safety auditing practices. It may include any combination of: safety engineering; industrial hygiene; health and safety management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of OSHA laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of health and safety compliance; health and safety standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of health and safety compliance and compliance implementation.



Management Systems

Includes skills and understanding in any combination of EHS science and technology; EHS management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of EHS laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of EHS compliance; EHS standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of EHS compliance and compliance implementation.



Requirements

Education

​Bachelors degree or higher.



Professional Experience

​Applicants for certification must have four years of relevant work experience as defined below.



Audit Experience

​Applicants must perform a minimum of 20 MS audits for a minimum of 100 days within the four years prior to certification. Of the 100 days, a minimum of 20 days must be conducted on site.



Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training outlined in the Definition of Relevant Experience and Training Elements shown below, and may be internal or external to the applicant's organization.



Definition of Relevant Management Systems Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training for the Management System Certification must include any combination of: environmental, health & safety (EHS) science and technology; EHS management and technical aspects of business activities including facility operations; requirements of EHS laws, regulations, and related documents at the national and local jurisdictional levels; evaluation, implementation, and management of EHS compliance; EHS standards against which management systems and compliance audits may be conducted; management systems and compliance audits procedures, processes, and techniques; and principles of EHS compliance and compliance implementation.


​Responsible Care®

Includes skills and understanding in one or more of the following areas: implementation of Responsible Care programs; the chemical process industry; product stewardship, transportation or distribution of chemical products; requirements of EHS laws, regulations and related documents; and EHS/Responsible Care management systems and standards or related auditing procedures, processes and auditing techniques.



Requirements

Education

​Bachelors degree or higher.



Professional Experience

​Applicant is required to have a minimum of four years relevant work experience, gained during the last ten years. Clear evidence of work experience in the chemical industry or EHS fields that provides an understanding of these issues shall be required. Relevant work experience shall be considered verifiable experience and shall be defined as experience that develops skills and understanding in at least two of the areas described below.



Audit Experience
​Applicants must have performed at least four EMS-related audits consisting of at least 20 total days within the two years prior to certification.



Auditor Training

​Formal training as an attendee or provider is required within the three years prior to certification. This training shall consist of 40 hours of formal training in relevant experience elements identified below. As part of this training, the applicant must successfully complete an ACC qualified Responsible Care course in accordance with "Responsible Care Auditor Course Requirements."



Definition of Relevant Responsible Care Experience and Training Elements

​Relevant experience and training must include verifiable experience gained during the last ten years and shall be defined as experience that develops skills and understanding in at least two of the following areas: implementation of Responsible Care programs; EHS science and technology; work experience gained by genuine hands-on roles in the chemical process industry and/or EHS services; product stewardship, transportation or distribution of chemical products; requirements of EHS laws, regulations and related documents; and EHS/Responsible Care management systems and standards or related auditing procedures, processes and auditing techniques. Auditor training must include 40 hours in the last three years and successful completion of an ACC qualified Responsible Care course in accordance with "Responsible Care Auditor Course Requirements" (RCMS206.00).



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug