Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ISM CPSM1 : Foundation of Supply Management ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CPSM1
Exam Name : Foundation of Supply Management
Vendor Name : ISM
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CPSM1 test Format | CPSM1 Course Contents | CPSM1 Course Outline | CPSM1 test Syllabus | CPSM1 test Objectives


This course focuses on management and improvement of supply chain processes and performance. It will be valuable for students who would like to pursue a career in consulting or take a position in operations, marketing or finance functions in a manufacturing or distribution firm. They explore important supply chain metrics, primary tradeoffs in making supply chain decisions, and basic tools for effective and efficient supply chain management, production planning and inventory control, order fulfillment and supply chain coordination. They will also investigate Topics such as global supply chain design, logistics, and outsourcing, several other latest supply chain innovations.

The class format includes lectures, case discussions, guest speakers, and simulation games. The content covers both quantitative and qualitative materials. The cases will feature high-tech companies as well as firms in more traditional industries such as apparel and manufacturing.



Institute for Supply Management® (ISM®) is the first and leading not-for-profit professional supply management
organization worldwide. Its 47,000 members in more than 90 countries around the world manage about US$1
trillion in corporate and government supply chain procurement annually. Founded in 1915 by practitioners, ISM
is committed to advancing the practice of supply management to drive value and competitive advantage for its
members, contributing to a prosperous and sustainable world. ISM empowers and leads the profession through the
ISM® Report On Business®, its highly-regarded certification and training programs, corporate services, events and
the ISM® Mastery Model®. The ISM® Report On Business®, Manufacturing and Non-Manufacturing, are two of the
most reliable economic indicators available, providing guidance to supply management professionals, economists,
analysts, and government and business leaders.



CPSM Certification Overview

The CPSM is globally recognized as the gold standard of excellence for supply management professionals, in
both the manufacturing and non-manufacturing sectors. The designation is transportable across industries, job
roles and regions, providing designation holders with flexibility and mobility.
The CPSM is for forward-thinking supply management professionals who desire to demonstrate a broad
understanding of the components of the profession. The program emphasizes the major competencies of supply
management. Those earning the CPSM will attain a greater understanding of end-to-end supply management
and be better positioned to positively impact their organization.



CPSM Eligibility Requirements

Earning a CPSM designation requires you to take and pass three exams, which can be taken in any order:

• Supply Management Core

• Supply Management Integration

• Leadership and Transformation in Supply Management

Candidates must have three years of full-time, professional supply management experience (nonclerical and
nonsupport) with a bachelors degree from a regionally accredited institution or international equivalent or five
years of full-time, professional supply management experience (nonclerical and nonsupport) without a qualified
bachelors degree.

All applicable experience must be in a professional position where the primary function is supply management.
Professional experience is usually defined as positions with decision-making authority and where independent
judgement is exercised. ISM does not require a candidate to work in all areas of supply management or be in a
management position. Proof of work experience is not required from those with a current C.P.M. certification.
ISM will evaluate work experience for candidates unsure if their current or previous positions are considered
applicable. The evaluation is optional, and there is a nominal charge.
The work-experience evaluation process allows a candidate to submit work experience documentation prior
to taking exams. ISM will return an evaluation to the candidate indicating if the experience is acceptable.
Candidates with acceptable experience should submit the evaluation with their original certification application
after they have passed the exams.



- Assess stakeholder needs and organize into sourcing plans 5

- Analyze and advise on feasibility of internal customer requests 3

- Analyze potential sources of products or services 7

- Determine methods to process requirements for goods or services based on cost, 5 timing, existing contracts and competitive bidding, as appropriate

- Conduct analyses to develop insourcing or outsourcing strategy 5

- Identify and implement technologies to support supply management 4

- Leverage spend through the identification, development and execution of 5 sourcing strategies

- Implement strategic sourcing plans aligned with organizational and stakeholder objectives 5

- Prepare solicitations for competitive bids, quotations and proposals with 6 pertinent specifications, terms and conditions

- Evaluate competitive offerings to identify the overall best offer for a product or service 5

CATEGORY MANAGEMENT

- Create a category management plan to meet the organizations key objectives 5

- Execute a category management plan 5

NEGOTIATION

- Prepare negotiation plan that aligns with organizational objectives 5

- Prepare and develop strategies and tactics for negotiations 4

- Lead, conduct and support negotiations with suppliers 5

LEGAL AND CONTRACTUAL

- Manage the preparation of contracts/purchase orders 5

- Award contracts to suppliers 3

- Administer contracts and/or purchase orders from award to completion or termination 5

- Perform or obtain legal review of contracts and other supply management documents 4

- Generate and follow supply management processes to ensure legal compliance 4

TASK TASK DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF QUESTIONS

SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

- Develop supplier qualification plans to assure components, materials 4 and suppliers meet specified requirements

- Develop and manage effective relationships with suppliers 7

- Conduct supplier performance evaluations 5

- Conduct regular business reviews with suppliers 4

- Identify opportunities and benefits for rationalizing the supply base 4

- Identify opportunities to drive supplier innovation 3

- Develop and implement supplier exit strategies 3

- Review supplier performance against negotiated service level agreements (SLAs) 4

- Resolve invoice and payment problems 2

- Act as a liaison between suppliers and functional areas to ensure accurate 4 information, documentation and product flow

- Work with suppliers to identify constraints and implement value-added processes 3

COST AND PRICE MANAGEMENT

- Develop cost management program strategies for purchases 5

- Perform cost/benefit analyses 4

- Conduct spend analysis to determine strategies for specific categories 5

- Track and validate cost savings and cost avoidance 4

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

- Prepare and/or administer a supply management department budget 3

- Develop financing strategies for purchases 3

- Verify that sufficient reporting exists 3

TOTAL 180 (including 15 unscored*)

* Included are 15 statistical data research questions which are unscored (not included in your final test score)



Supply Management Integration Exam

TASK TASK DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF QUESTIONS

SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGY

- Develop and/or implement a material or service standardization program 5

- Implement requirements planning to align supply management activities 7 with organizational strategy

- Implement operations planning, scheduling and inventory control processes 6 to ensure optimum use of resources

- Structure the supply chain in support of the organizations business strategy 7

SALES AND OPERATIONS PLANNING – DEMAND PLANNING

- Incorporate the use of sales, inventory and capacity forecasts in the planning 6 of materials production to better meet strategic objectives and goals

- Conduct demand planning 4

SALES AND OPERATIONS PLANNING – FORECASTING

- Analyze and report on market conditions, benchmarks and industry 5 trends to internal stakeholders

- Develop supply forecasts in light of economic and technological trends 5

- Plan and communicate sourcing and supply strategies based on forecasted data 6

- Manage forecasted data with suppliers 5

- Calculate and report forecast accuracy 4

SALES AND OPERATIONS – PRODUCT AND SERVICE

- Participate in new product or service development in support of marketing efforts 5

- Participate in product-service ramp-up and/or ramp-down strategies and implementation 5

- Create systems and process improvements to help the organization meet sales goals 5

QUALITY MANAGEMENT

- Develop and/or administer a supplier quality certification program 4

- Develop measurements for quality improvement 4

- Implement continuous improvement processes within the supply chain 6

TASK TASK DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF QUESTIONS

LOGISTICS AND MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

- Design transportation and distribution policies and procedures to 4 ensure optimum flow of materials

- Manage transportation, invoicing and documentation functions to 4 ensure regulatory compliance

- Manage the resolution of delivery/receiving problems 4

- Analyze supplier transportation costs 5

- Develop and/or implement a warehouse management system 5

- Conduct network design and optimization to support the business model, 5 increase productivity and lower operating costs

- Oversee the day-to-day operations of a warehousing function 4

- Develop and/or implement an inventory management system 5

- Coordinate and/or monitor the movement of equipment and assets within the organization 3

- Expedite/de-expedite orders 3

- Develop and/or execute plans and metrics to reduce risk of shortages 4

- Identify cost-effective packaging that meets requirements 3

- Conduct investment recovery activities for surplus/obsolete materials 4

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

- Perform project management activities 8

TOTAL 165 (including 15 unscored*)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug