Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ICAI CPT : Common Proficiency Test ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CPT
Exam Name : Common Proficiency Test
Vendor Name : ICAI
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CPT test Format | CPT Course Contents | CPT Course Outline | CPT test Syllabus | CPT test Objectives


Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The CPT (Common Proficiency Test) is a multiple-choice test consisting of four sections, each with a specific number of questions. The sections and their respective question counts are as follows:
1. Fundamentals of Accounting: 60 questions
2. Mercantile Laws: 40 questions
3. General Economics: 50 questions
4. Quantitative Aptitude: 50 questions
In total, the CPT comprises 200 questions.

- Time: The CPT is a time-limited exam, with a total duration of 4 hours. Candidates have 2 hours for each session, and they cannot leave the examination hall during the session.

Course Outline:
The CPT is an entry-level examination conducted by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). It serves as the first step in the Chartered Accountancy (CA) course. The course outline for the CPT includes the following subjects:

1. Fundamentals of Accounting: This section covers the basic principles and concepts of accounting, including the preparation, presentation, and interpretation of financial statements, accounting for partnerships, and accounting for nonprofit organizations.

2. Mercantile Laws: This section focuses on the legal aspects relevant to the business environment, including the Indian Contract Act, the Sale of Goods Act, and the Partnership Act.

3. General Economics: This section covers fundamental economic concepts and principles, including microeconomics and macroeconomics, price determination, national income, money and banking, and economic reforms in India.

4. Quantitative Aptitude: This section tests the candidates' mathematical and analytical skills. It includes syllabus such as ratios and proportions, time and distance, equations, probability, and basic statistical concepts.

Exam Objectives:
The CPT has the following objectives:

1. Assess Fundamental Knowledge: The test aims to evaluate candidates' understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles of accounting, mercantile laws, general economics, and quantitative aptitude.

2. Test Analytical Skills: The CPT assesses candidates' ability to apply logical and analytical thinking in solving numerical and theoretical problems.

3. Measure Aptitude for the CA Profession: The test aims to determine candidates' aptitude and suitability for pursuing a career in chartered accountancy.

4. Establish a Foundation: The CPT serves as the foundation for the subsequent levels of the CA course, ensuring that candidates have a solid understanding of the core subjects.

Exam Syllabus:
The CPT syllabus covers the following topics:

1. Fundamentals of Accounting:
- Theoretical Framework
- Accounting Process
- Bank Reconciliation Statement
- Inventories
- Depreciation Accounting
- Preparation of Final Accounts for Sole Proprietors
- Partnership Accounts
- Accounting for Nonprofit Organizations

2. Mercantile Laws:
- The Indian Contract Act, 1872
- The Sale of Goods Act, 1930
- The Indian Partnership Act, 1932

3. General Economics:
- Microeconomics: Introduction to Microeconomics, Theory of Demand and Supply, Price Determination in Different Markets
- Macroeconomics: Indian Economy - A Profile, Basic Understanding of National Income, Money and Banking

4. Quantitative Aptitude:
- Ratio and Proportion, Indices, Logarithms
- Equations and Matrices
- Time and Distance
- Simple and Compound Interest
- Permutations and Combinations
- Probability and Statistics



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ICAI CA Foundation test 2023: Admit card released at eservices.icai.org; step-by-step guide to download

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India on Friday released the admit card for the ICAI CA Foundation December test 2023. CA aspirants can download their admit card from the official website of the Institute of Chartered Accountants for the test scheduled to take place this month.

Also Read: Education, healthcare, EV sectors to drive jobs in Q4 FY2024: Report

The link for the official website of ICAI is: eservices.icai.org

The CA foundation examination is scheduled to take place on December 31, January 2, 4, and 6, 2023 instead of December 24, 26, 28, and 30, 2023. Follow the below-mentioned steps to download CA Foundation test 2023 admit card. 

Direct link to download admit card for CA foundation test 2023: https://cdn3.tcsion.com//EForms/configuredHtml/1666/71696/login.html

Steps to download ICAI CA Foundation Admit Card 2023

-Go to the official website of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India 

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-Link to official website of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India: eservices.icai.org

-Instead of logging in, select the link stating ‘ Click here To download Admit Card For Foundation test December 2023’.

Also Read: JNU bans protests inside university campus, violators may face up to ₹20,000 fine, rustication

-After selecting the said option, enter your login details and select the ‘submit’ option.

-Your admit card will appear on the screen.

-Check the admit card and download the page.

-Take out a printout of the copy for the future.

Also Read: Telangana to have a ‘Tribal University,’ Parliament gives green light to Central Universities Bill

About CA Foundation test 2023

CA Foundation test is organised in two phases, with students required to appear in papers of four different categories. Paper 1 and Paper to are held from 2 pm to 5 pm. Paper 1 and Paper 2 are of subjective format, whereas, paper 3 and paper 4 are objective type. The CA Foundation test is conducted for a total of 400 marks. Each paper carries 100 marks. Talking about negative marking in the exam, candidates will lose one-fourth mark for each incorrect answer. The test is conducted in offline mode.

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Published: 15 Dec 2023, 04:13 PM IST

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ICAI CA November test 2020 Postponed for 24th, 25th November in TN, Puducherry due to Cyclone Nivar, Get Details Here

ICIA CA November test 2020 Postponed: As per the latest update, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) has postponed the CA Exams 2020 which are scheduled to be held on 24th and 25th November in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry in the view of threat posed by Cyclone Nivar. Check official notice about postponement of ICAI CA test 2020 on official website icai.org. Get Details Here.

ICIA CA November test 2020 Postponed: As per the latest update, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) has postponed the CA Exams 2020 which are scheduled to be held on 24th and 25th November in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry in the view of threat posed by Cyclone Nivar. To confirm the postponement of ICAI CA test 2020, the institute has released an official notice on its website. Students can check official notice about postponement of ICAI CA test 2020 on official website icai.org. Alternatively, candidates can also read the detailed notification about the postponement of CA November Exams in TN and Puducherry via the link provided below:

ICAI CA November test 2020 Postponed in TN / Puducherry – Read Detailed Notification Here

Exam Postponed for Few Cities

As per the official notification, the CA November 2020 exams that are currently underway have been postponed for candidates who are from few specific cities that fall in the coastal region that is under threat due to the Cyclone Nivar. A tweet sent out by ICAI in this regards reads ““Important Announcement for Examinees in some cities of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry with regards to ICAI November 2020 Exams in view of the Nivar Cyclone.”

Exams Rescheduled to December

As per the official notification, the test for candidates who have test centres in cities of Chennai, Cuddalore, Kancheepuram, Karaikudi, Kumbakonam, Nagapattinam, Pudukkottai, Tiruvallur & Villupuram, and Puducherry has been rescheduled. The rescheduled Intermediate and IPC test would be conducted on 9th December 2020, and the Final (Old & New) test shall be held on 11th December 2020, for the above-stated centers only at the same time. The notification also states that no new admit cards or hall tickets will be issued to the candidates for the rescheduled exams. Candidates will be able to appear for postponed exams on 9th and 11th December 2020 with the old admit cards, which will remain valid for the rescheduled dates.


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug