Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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RACC CRA : Certified Research Administrator ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : CRA
Exam Name : Certified Research Administrator
Vendor Name : RACC
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CRA test Format | CRA Course Contents | CRA Course Outline | CRA test Syllabus | CRA test Objectives


The Certified Research Administrator® test is a computer-based examination composed of a maximum of 250 multiple-choice, objective questions with a total testing time of four (4) hours. The content for the examination is described in the Body of Knowledge on the next page.

The questions for the examination are obtained from individuals with expertise in research administration and are reviewed for construction, accuracy, and appropriateness by the RACC.

RACC, with the advice and assistance of the Professional Testing Corporation, prepares the examination.

The Certified Research Administrator® test will be weighted in approximately the following manner:

I. Project Development and Administration 30%

II. Legal Requirements and Sponsor Interface 30%

III. Financial Management 25%

IV. General Management 15%



The Research Administrators Certification Council (RACC) promotes the concept of voluntary certification
by examination for all research and sponsored programs administrators. After passing this examination,
an individual earns the Certified Administrator® (CRA®) designation. Certification is just one part of a
process called “credentialing”. It focuses specifically on the individual and is one indication of current
competence in this specialized field. Certification in research and sponsored programs administration is
highly valued and provides formal recognition of basic knowledge in this field.



The Certified Research Administrator (CRA) credential means that you demonstrate a level of knowledge of all aspects of research administration. It is obtained by qualifying for and taking the CRA exam, which is administered by an independent certifying body, the Research Administrators Certification Council (RACC) http://www.cra-cert.org/(link is external). The CRA test is rigorous, and it must be taken at a designated site and it is administered through Professional Testing Corporation. In a four-hour period, test-takers must answer 250 questions that cover the full spectrum of research administration.



I. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

- Collection and Dissemination of Information

- Marketing - Internal and External

- Identification of funding opportunities

- Identification of internal capabilities

- Resource Documents, Application Materials, and Information

- Dissemination of Information/Publications

- Liaison

- Internal

- Funding sources

- Cooperative arrangements

- Public Relations

- Agency Structure and Practice

- Proposal Development

- Proposal Writing

- Budget Preparation

- Documentation to Meet Sponsor Requirements

- Internal Proposal Processing

- Negotiation Techniques

- Contracting Basics

- Administration of Awards

- Monitoring Activity

- Reports on Progress and Financial Status

- Continuation Funding

- Close Out

- Changes in Project Status

- Award Instruments

- Ethics and Professionalism

- Conflict of Interest

- Bioethics

- Human Subjects

- Animal Care

- Professional

- Intellectual Property

- Patents

- Copyrights

- Licensing

- Commercialization

- Data

- Proprietary Information

- Electronic Research Administration

II. LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND SPONSOR INTERFACE

- Regulations and Statutes

- Overview of Regulatory and Legislative Process

- Governmental Relations

- Mandated Requirements

- Compliance - Federal Sponsors and General Management Practices

- Representations and Certifications

- Federal Drug-Free Workplace and Drug-Free Schools

- Federal Debt Delinquency

- Federal Debarment/Suspension

- Lobbying

- Conflicts of interest

- Scientific misconduct

- Other

- Federal Management Requirements

- Federal Acquisition Regulations

- Federal Assistance Administrative Regulations

- 2 CFR (Uniform Guidance and OMB Circulars)

- Institutional Committees

- Institutional Review Board

- Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

- Other

- Federal Disclosure Requirements

- Institutional and Sponsor Publication Requirements

- HIPAA Health

- International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR)/Export Administration Regulations (EAR)

- Federal/Sponsor Appeal Procedures

III. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

- Budgeting/Accounting

- Proposal Development

- Accounting Management

- Accounting systems/management information systems

- Sponsor documents

- Internal documents

- Accounting processes

- Effort reporting

- Service centers

- Program income

- Internal controls

- Cost transfers

- Rebudgeting

- Costs

- Direct Costs

- Indirect Costs

- Indirect Cost Rates

- Development

- Negotiation

- Cost Sharing

- Sponsor Financial Reporting

- Audit

- Types

- Internal and External Requirements

- Allowable Costs

IV. GENERAL MANAGEMENT

- Facility Management

- Specialized Facilities

- Property, Utility, and Equipment Management

- Inventory control

- Sale/disposal of equipment and property

- Lease vs. purchase

- Capital expenditures

- Sharing/pooling

- Central services

- Safety and Health Requirements and Procedures

- Hazardous and Nonhazardous Materials

- Security

- Renovation and Construction -Differentiation & Impact analysis

- Biohazards

- Other

- Contracts and Purchasing

- Basic Legal Concepts

- Management of Contracts and Purchasing

- Termination and Appeals

- Records Management

- Human Resource Management

- Employee/Labor Relations

- Career Development/Training

- Staffing

- Affirmative Action/Equal Employment Opportunity

- Compensation



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug