Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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iSQI CTAL-TA : ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Analyst (Syllabus-2012) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : CTAL-TA
Exam Name : ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Analyst (Syllabus-2012)
Vendor Name : iSQI
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CTAL-TA exam Format | CTAL-TA Course Contents | CTAL-TA Course Outline | CTAL-TA exam Syllabus | CTAL-TA exam Objectives

An Advanced Level Test Analyst can:

- perform the appropriate testing activities based on the software development lifecycle being used;
- determine the proper prioritization of the testing activities based on the information provided by the risk analysis;
- select and apply appropriate test techniques to ensure that tests provide an adequate level of confidence, based on defined coverage criteria;

- provide the appropriate level of documentation relevant to their testing activities;

- determine the appropriate types of functional testing to be performed;

- work effectively in a usability testing team;

- effectively participate in requirements / user story reviews with stakeholders, applying knowledge of typical mistakes made in work products;

- Excellerate the efficiency of the test process with the use of tools.

Learning Objectives

- Explain how and why the timing and level of involvement for the Test Analyst varies when working with different software development lifecycle models.

- Summarize the appropriate tasks for the Test Analyst when conducting analysis and design activities.

- Explain why test conditions should be understood by the stakeholders.

- For a given project scenario, select the appropriate design level for test cases (high-level or low-level).

- Explain the issues to be considered in test case design.

- Summarize the appropriate tasks for the Test Analyst when conducting test implementation activities.

- Summarize the appropriate tasks for the Test Analyst when conducting test execution activities.

- For a given situation, participate in risk identification, perform risk exam and propose appropriate risk mitigation.

- Analyze a given specification item(s) and design test cases by applying equivalence partitioning.

- Analyze a given specification item(s) and design test cases by applying boundary value analysis.

- Analyze a given specification item(s) and design test cases by applying decision table testing.

- Analyze a given specification item(s) and design test cases by applying state transition testing.

- Explain how classification tree diagrams support test techniques.

- Analyze a given specification item(s) and design test cases by applying pairwise testing.

- Analyze a system, or its requirement specification, in order to determine likely types of defects to be found and select the appropriate black-box test technique(s).

- Explain the principles of experience-based test techniques, and the benefits and drawbacks compared to black-box and defect-based test techniques.

- Determine exploratory tests from a given scenario.

- Describe the application of defect-based test techniques and differentiate their use from black-box test techniques.

- For a given project situation, determine which black-box or experience-based test techniques should be applied to achieve specific goals.

- Explain what test techniques are appropriate to test functional completeness, correctness and appropriateness.

- Define the typical defects to be targeted for the functional completeness, correctness and appropriateness characteristics.

- Define when the functional completeness, correctness and appropriateness characteristics should be tested in the software development lifecycle.

- Explain the approaches that would be suitable to verify and validate both the implementation of the usability requirements and the fulfillment of the user's expectations.

- Explain the role of the test analyst in interoperability testing including identification of the defects to be targeted.

- Explain the role of the test analyst in portability testing including identification of the defects to be targeted.

- For a given set of requirements, determine the test conditions required to verify the functional and/or non-functional quality characteristics within the scope of the Test Analyst.

- Identify problems in a requirements specification according to checklist information provided in the syllabus.

- Identify problems in a user story according to checklist information provided in the syllabus.

- For a given scenario, determine the appropriate activities for a Test Analyst in a keyword-driven automation project.

- Explain the usage and types of test tools applied in test design, test data preparation and test execution.

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New Development Makes Next-Level Brain Implants Possible

Changing BCIs Dramatically

Current brain implants are less than ideal. They are crude brain-computer interface (BCI) devices that are implanted during an invasive procedure, and a relatively small number of electrodes make contact with the brain despite the large size of the devices. While they are somewhat effective in the mitigation of the effects of epilepsy, Parkinson’s, and other neurodegenerative conditions, they'd be far more useful with more electrodes making contact than the mere tens of thousands that is possible now.

To dramatically Excellerate BCIs, scientists need to create an implant device that is less invasive than current methods and can still offer more interactive channels, including direct interfaces with the visual and auditory cortices. This kind of BCI would create a vastly expanded range of contact points for brain function support by artificial systems.

Enter the U.S. Department of Defense’s (DoD's) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and its Neural Engineering System Design (NESD) program. Columbia Engineering Professor Ken Shepard is leading this team, which recently received a $15.8 million grant for the next four years. Their goal is to invent exactly this kind of device, with the specific intent to help people with hearing and vision impairment and neurodegenerative diseases, and they're using flexible silicon electronics to do it. The team plans to develop an implantable device with one million channels and they hope to apply for approval for regulatory testing by the time the four-year grant expires.

Image Credit: Ken Shepard “This is a very aggressive timeline,” Shepard said in a press release. “We think the only way to achieve this is to use an all-electrical approach that involves a massive surface-recording array with more than one million electrodes fabricated as a monolithic device on a single complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit.” Connecting With The Brain

Shepard and his team think that the scale of the interface, the necessary complexity of the device, the project's aggressive timeframe, and the high noninvasiveness requirement can be achieved only with brain surface level electrode architectures. And, while there is a current precedent in clinical practice for surface-level stimulation and recording, the demands of the NESD goals require significant advancement beyond those interfaces.

The implanted chips from this research team are unique; they are flexible enough to avoid damaging the brain tissue, very lightweight, and ultra-conformable on the surface of the brain. The chip itself has no need to pierce the brain tissue, instead it uses data telemetry and wireless power. This kind of baseline technology is exactly what both Elon Musk's Neuralink and Bryan Johnson's Kernel need to get their envisioned technologies rolling.

“This subject has drawn lots of interest from the private sector recently, including start-ups Neuralink and Kernel,” Shepard stated in the press release. “If they are successful, the tiny size and massive scale of this device could provide the opportunity for transformational interfaces to the brain, including direct interfaces to the visual cortex that would allow patients who have lost their sight to discriminate complex patterns at unprecedented resolutions.”

And, as Musk and Johnson have noted, it would allow humans to keep up with AI.

Bryan Johnson is an investor in Futurism; he does not hold a seat on their editorial board or have any editorial review privileges.

The Difference Between Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Epinephrine and norepinephrine have a lot in common. Epinephrine (also called adrenaline), norepinephrine, and dopamine make up a small but important hormone family called catecholamines. 

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are the hormones behind your “fight-or-flight” response (also called the fight, flight, or freeze response). When you experience stress, these two hormones leap into action. They also play roles in some of your everyday bodily functions. 

Dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger in your brain. This chemical controls your responses to sensory information. When you yank your hand back from a hot stove or when you find yourself craving something sugary in the candy aisle, that’s dopamine at work. 

Dopamine’s roles spread far and wide, including: 

  • Motor control
  • Emotions (pleasure or dislike)
  • Thought-processing
  • A dopamine imbalance can lead to a loss of motor control (such as Parkinson’s disease), addiction, ADHD, and schizophrenia.

    Epinephrine and norepinephrine. These two hormones work together in stressful situations to increase blood flow throughout your body. Some of the changes that occur are: 

  • Increased heart rate
  • Increase the amount of blood pumping from your heart
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Additionally, they break down fat and increase blood sugar (glucose) levels to provide your body more energy. 

    You may think of adrenaline as a mysterious chemical that makes you focused and strong enough to lift a car. This isn’t far from the truth, but there’s a little more to the story.‌

    Fight or flight. When you experience stress, your heartbeat quickens, you start to sweat, and you feel the need to get away. This is the fight-or-flight response, at the heart of which is adrenaline. 

    Where epinephrine is produced. Like the other catecholamine hormones, adrenaline is produced in the adrenal glands. Within minutes of experiencing stress, adrenaline is sent into your blood toward other organs to cause certain responses.

    Epinephrine’s effects on your body. When adrenaline is released, it causes specific reactions in your body. These are intended to ensure your survival but can be a problem if you aren’t in a stressful situation. Some of the effects of adrenaline include: 

  • Dilations of your air passages to take in more oxygen
  • Contracting blood vessels to redirect blood flow to important muscles and organs, such as the heart and lungs
  • Reduced ability to feel pain
  • Increase in strength and physical performance
  • Heightened awareness and focus
  • Epinephrine injections.Adrenaline shots are commonly used to treat a life-threatening allergic reaction or anaphylaxis. Epinephrine injection is an injection system that is prefilled with a liquid solution of the hormone epinephrine. 

    Treating anaphylaxis. Symptoms of a mild allergic reaction include hives, itching, and swelling. Symptoms of anaphylaxis are much more severe, can be life-threatening, and vary between each occurrence. Some symptoms of anaphylaxis include: 

  • Swelling or tightening of the throat
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing or coughing
  • Lightheadedness or fainting
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Epinephrine injection is the first line of treatment for anaphylaxis. Epinephrine's roles regarding blood flow and oxygen intake help fight the symptoms of anaphylaxis. However, epinephrine injection isn’t the final treatment option, and further medical assistance is necessary. 

    Norepinephrine (sometimes referred to as noradrenaline) is a neurotransmitter and hormone that responds to stress and low blood pressure. It also plays a role in managing your ability and your ability to focus.‌

    Fight or flight. When working alongside adrenaline, norepinephrine supports the fight-or-flight response by increasing your heart rate, breaking down fat, and increasing glucose levels. It gives your brain and body the energy it needs to take action. 

    Biorhythms. Norepinephrine works to maintain your sleep-wake cycles. It helps you wake up in the morning, improves your attention, and helps you focus throughout the day. 

    Norepinephrine imbalances. An imbalance of norepinephrine (too much or too little) can have an impact on your mental and emotional health. Conditions such as depression, anxiety, addiction, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are caused by an imbalance of norepinephrine. 

    A surge of norepinephrine can cause feelings of happiness and euphoria. However, a surge can also lead to panic attacks, raised blood pressure, and hyperactivity. A lack of norepinephrine can cause lethargy, fatigue, lack of focus, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression. 

    You will often find norepinephrine at work treating low blood pressure ( hypotension) due to a life-threatening complication or alongside serotonin in antidepressants. ‌

    Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are an antidepressant. SNRIs work by altering the brain chemistry of your serotonin (a “feel good” hormone) and norepinephrine neurotransmitters. This process helps to regulate your mood and relieve depression symptoms. 

    Getting norepinephrine naturally. You can help your body and brain produce more serotonin and norepinephrine through exercise, sleep, feeling accomplished, enjoying music, and meditation. 


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug