Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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The Foundation Level Syllabus forms the basis for the International Software Testing Qualification at the Foundation Level.
The International Software Testing Qualifications Board® (ISTQB®) provides it to the national examination bodies for them to accredit the training providers and to derive examination questions in their local language.

Training providers will produce courseware and determine appropriate teaching methods for accreditation, and the syllabus will help candidates in their preparation for the examination.

The Certified Tester Foundation Level in Software Testing
The Foundation Level qualification is aimed at anyone involved in software testing. This includes people in roles such as testers, test analysts, test engineers, test consultants, test managers, user acceptance testers and software developers.

This Foundation Level qualification is also appropriate for anyone who wants a basic understanding of software testing, such as project managers, quality managers, software development managers, business analysts, IT directors and management consultants. Holders of the Foundation Certificate will be able to go on to a higher level software testing qualification.

Fundamentals of Testing

Learning Objectives for Fundamentals of Testing:
- What is Testing=>
- Identify typical objectives of testing
- Differentiate testing from debugging
- Why is Testing Necessary=>
- supply examples of why testing is necessary
- Describe the relationship between testing and quality assurance and supply examples of how testing contributes to higher quality
- Distinguish between error, defect, and failure
- Distinguish between the root cause of a defect and its effects
- Seven Testing Principles
- Explain the seven testing principles
- Test Process
- Explain the impact of context on the test process
- Describe the test activities and respective tasks within the test process
- Differentiate the work products that support the test process
- Explain the value of maintaining traceability between the test basis and test work products
- The Psychology of Testing
- Identify the psychological factors that influence the success of testing
- Explain the difference between the mindset required for test activities and the mindset required for development activities

Keywords
coverage, debugging, defect, error, failure, quality, quality assurance, root cause, test analysis, test basis, test case, test completion, test condition, test control, test data, test design, test execution, test implementation, test monitoring, test object, test objective, test oracle, test planning, test procedure, test process, test suite, testing, testware, traceability, validation, verification

Testing Throughout the Software Development Lifecycle

Learning Objectives for Testing Throughout the Software Development Lifecycle
- Software Development Lifecycle Models
- Explain the relationships between software development activities and test activities in the software development lifecycle
- Identify reasons why software development lifecycle models must be adapted to the context of project and product characteristics
- Test Levels
- Compare the different test levels from the perspective of objectives, test basis, test objects, typical defects and failures, and approaches and responsibilities
- Test Types
- Compare functional, non-functional, and white-box testing
- Recognize that functional, non-functional, and white-box tests occur at any test level
- Compare the purposes of confirmation testing and regression testing
- Maintenance Testing
- Summarize triggers for maintenance testing
- Describe the role of impact analysis in maintenance testing

Keywords
acceptance testing, alpha testing, beta testing, change-related testing, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), component integration testing, component testing, confirmation testing, contractual acceptance testing, functional testing, impact analysis, integration testing, maintenance testing, non-functional testing, operational acceptance testing, regression testing, regulatory acceptance testing, sequential development model, system integration testing, system testing, test basis, test case, test environment, test level, test object, test objective, test type, user acceptance testing, white-box testing

Static Testing

Learning Objectives for Static Testing
- Static Testing Basics
- Recognize types of software work product that can be examined by the different static testing techniques
- Use examples to describe the value of static testing
- Explain the difference between static and dynamic techniques, considering objectives, types of defects to be identified, and the role of these techniques within the software lifecycle
- Review Process
- Summarize the activities of the work product review process
- Recognize the different roles and responsibilities in a formal review
- Explain the differences between different review types: informal review, walkthrough, technical review, and inspection
- Apply a review technique to a work product to find defects
- Explain the factors that contribute to a successful review

Keywords
ad hoc review, checklist-based review, dynamic testing, formal review, informal review, inspection, perspective-based reading, review, role-based review, scenario-based review, static analysis, static testing, technical review, walkthrough

Test Techniques

Learning Objectives for Test Techniques
- Categories of Test Techniques
- Explain the characteristics, commonalities, and differences between black-box test techniques, white-box test techniques, and experience-based test techniques
- Black-box Test Techniques
- Apply equivalence partitioning to derive test cases from given requirements
- Apply boundary value analysis to derive test cases from given requirements
- Apply decision table testing to derive test cases from given requirements
- Apply state transition testing to derive test cases from given requirements
- Explain how to derive test cases from a use case
- White-box Test Techniques
- Explain statement coverage
- Explain decision coverage
- Explain the value of statement and decision coverage
- Experience-based Test Techniques
- Explain error guessing
- Explain exploratory testing
- Explain checklist-based testing

Keywords
black-box test technique, boundary value analysis, checklist-based testing, coverage, decision coverage, decision table testing, error guessing, equivalence partitioning, experience-based test technique, exploratory testing, state transition testing, statement coverage, test technique, use case testing, whitebox test technique

Test Management

Learning Objectives for Test Management
- Test Organization
- Explain the benefits and drawbacks of independent testing
- Identify the tasks of a test manager and tester
- Test Planning and Estimation
- Summarize the purpose and content of a test plan
- Differentiate between various test strategies
- supply examples of potential entry and exit criteria
- Apply knowledge of prioritization, and technical and logical dependencies, to schedule test execution for a given set of test cases
- Identify factors that influence the effort related to testing
- Explain the difference between two estimation techniques: the metrics-based technique and the expert-based technique
- Test Monitoring and Control
- Recall metrics used for testing
- Summarize the purposes, contents, and audiences for test reports
- Configuration Management
- Summarize how configuration management supports testing
- Risks and Testing
- Define risk level by using likelihood and impact
- Distinguish between project and product risks
- Describe, by using examples, how product risk analysis may influence the thoroughness and scope of testing
- ement
- Write a defect report, covering a defect found during testing

Keywords
configuration management, defect management, defect report, entry criteria, exit criteria, product risk, project risk, risk, risk level, risk-based testing, test approach, test control, test estimation, test manager, test monitoring, test plan, test planning, test progress report, test strategy, test summary report, tester

Tool Support for Testing

Learning Objectives for Test Tools
- Test tool considerations
- Classify test tools according to their purpose and the test activities they support
- Identify benefits and risks of test automation
- Remember special considerations for test execution and test management tools
- Effective use of tools
- Identify the main principles for selecting a tool
- Recall the objectives for using pilot projects to introduce tools
- Identify the success factors for evaluation, implementation, deployment, and on-going support of test tools in an organization

Keywords
data-driven testing, keyword-driven testing, test automation, test execution tool, test management tool



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug