Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CWDP-303
Exam Name : Certified Wireless Design Professional
Vendor Name : CWNP
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CWDP-303 exam Format | CWDP-303 Course Contents | CWDP-303 Course Outline | CWDP-303 exam Syllabus | CWDP-303 exam Objectives


Exam Name : Wireless Design Professional
Exam Number : CWDP-303 CWDP
Exam Duration : 90 minutes
Questions in exam : 60
Passing Score : 70%
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : CWNP CWDP-303 Real Questions
VCE practice exam : CWNP Certified Wireless Design Professional Practice Test

Section Weight Objectives Define Specifications for the WLAN 25% 1 Collect and use business requirements
- Business use cases and justification
- User requirements
- Regulatory compliance
- Industry compliance 2 Collect, define, and use technical requirements
- Location services such as RTLS
- Latency requirements
- Signal strength requirements
- Capacity requirements
- Security requirements
BYOD and guest access
Roaming
Monitoring
Authentication and encryption
- Discover applications and their specific requirements
- Discover WLAN upgrade requirements when applicable
- Define bridge link requirements when applicable
- Voice over WLAN (VoWLAN) Requirements
- Identify client devices including most Important and least capable device
- Requirement Areas 3 Identify design constraints
- Regulatory compliance
- Aesthetics
- Budget
- Architectural constraints
- Mounting restrictions
- Access restrictions
- Vendor selection
- Time constraints
- Building codes and safety codes 4 Collect, use, and deliver essential documents where applicable
- Validated floorplans
- Network diagrams
- Existing AP locations
- Network closet locations
- Existing cabling standards
- Existing cable drop locations
- Switch capabilities and capacity
- Existing network services including DNS, DHCP, NTP and authentication servers
- PoE capabilities and power budget
- Existing wireless system data
- Previous design/survey documentation
- Site survey deliverables 5 Define requirement areas including essential metrics for each requirement
- Capacity
- Client device types
- Applications and their requirements
- SSIDs and WLAN profiles
- Security settings
- Understand the various issues introduced by common vertical markets such as healthcare, education, retail, hospitality, high-density scenarios, public hotspots and outdoor networks 6 Implement effective project management
- Statement of Work (SoW)
- Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs)
- Project plans
- Resource management
- Role definition Design the WLAN 45% 1 Define WLAN architectures and select the appropriate architecture for a design
- Controller-based (physical and virtual controllers)
- Distributed (cloud-based and local WNMS)
- Standalone/Autonomous APs
- Dynamic vs. static channel assignment
- Dynamic radio management
- Software defined radio
- RF profiles
- Select and/or recommend the appropriate equipment for the design (APs, antennas, controllers, managed services) 2 Produce a design and communicate with appropriate individuals related to the design
- Use WLAN design software including the common features found in the solutions provided by various vendors
Import and calibrate floor plans
Set project parameters
Select and place APs and antennas manually or using automated placement tools and define configuration parameters
Adjust AP settings to accommodate design requirements
Define appropriate requirements areas using software features
Define channel plans (MCA or SCA, channel widths, frequency bands, output power levels, DFS and TPC requirements) including solutions for CCI, adjacent channel interference (ACI), non-overlapping ACI, and non-802.11 interferers within regulatory constraints
Document cabling requirements
- Select and use appropriate tools for a design project
Site survey hardware (camera, marking tools, spare batteries, survey trays, 2-way radios, USB adapters, USB hubs, external antennas)
Distance measuring tools (laser measure, tape measure, measuring wheel, angle finder, mapping software)
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (hardhat, steel-toe shoes, glasses, gloves, clean suits, masks, high visibility clothing)
Use WLAN analysis tools for appropriate use cases in WLAN design (spectrum analyzer, protocol analyzer, scanner/discovery tools, cable testers)
Use performance measurement tools to assist in WLAN design (throughput testers, QoS exam, network functionality)
Perform client measurements and analysis to determine client capabilities (received signal measurements, roaming behavior, QoS capabilities)
Gather attenuation measurements for building materials and objects
Understand the differences between AP-on-a-Stick surveys and predictive modeling software and select the appropriate solution between them for a design project
- Perform a pre-design site survey when required
Select and perform the appropriate type of site survey (manual active, manual passive, AP-on-a-Stick)
Use the appropriate site survey tools during the survey
Gain appropriate access and clearance to perform the survey
Document metrics and other information collected during the survey (RSSI, SNR, noise floor, interference, cell coverage, application and connectivity data such as data rates, latency, loss, and retries)
Perform survey procedures for bridge links when required
- Design special WLAN deployments, including branch and remote offices, mesh networks, and bridge links
- Select among common vendor features and make configuration recommendations in a design scenario (band steering, automatic channel selection, load balancing, VLAN configuration)
- Design for different client and application types and the constraints they introduce (tablets, barcode scanners, VoIP handsets, laptops, ID badges, location tracking systems, voice and video)
- Ensure proper end-to-end QoS is understood and implemented including WMM, wired QoS, QoS markings and queues
- Define and recommend proper security solutions in the design including monitoring, authentication servers, EAP methods, authentication, and encryption
- Design for secure roaming including 802.11-2016 FT roaming, SCA roaming, vendor roaming solutions, and client support issues 3 Create, distribute, and communicate design documentation
- Bill of Materials (BoM)
- Design report
- Physical installation guide Deploy the WLAN 10% 1 Ensure proper understanding and implementation of design documentation
- Implementation meeting (explain design decisions to implementers and ensure understanding of design deployment)
- Distribute documents to appropriate individuals
- Select qualified implementation technicians when required 2 Perform validation and optimization tasks during deployment
- Verify proper AP installation location
- Verify PoE provisioning requirements are met
- Verify channel selections and output power
- Verify aesthetic requirements are met
- Verify proper security configuration 3 Recommend or perform essential deployment tasks
- Understand and perform installation procedures for different WLAN architectures (cloud-based, controller-based, WNMS, autonomous)
- Infrastructure configuration supporting the WLAN (DHCP, DNS, NTP, switches and routers)
- Channel assignment, automatic radio management, and output power configuration
- Installation procedures for cloud-based APs, controller-based APs, WNMS APs, and autonomous APs Validate and Optimize the WLAN 20% 1 Perform an RF validation survey
- Ensure coverage requirements
- Ensure capacity requirements
- Evaluate CCI impact 2 Perform client performance testing
- Application testing
- Roaming testing
- Connectivity testing 3 Recommend and/or perform appropriate physical adjustments
- AP locations
- Antenna locations 4 Recommend and/or perform appropriate configuration adjustments
- Transmitter RF output power
- RF channel selection
- RF channel bandwidth 5 Select remediation solutions for problems discovered during post-validation
- RF coverage problems
- Capacity problems
- QoS problems
- Security configuration errors
- Client connectivity issues
- Resolve interference issues 6 Implement knowledge transfer and hand-off
- End user training
- Support staff training
- Solution documentation and assets (digital or physical assets, guides, floorplans, configuration documents)
- Final meeting (Q&A and hand-off)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug