Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CWSP-205
Exam Name : Certified Wireless Security Professional
Vendor Name : CWNP
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CWSP-205 test Format | CWSP-205 Course Contents | CWSP-205 Course Outline | CWSP-205 test Syllabus | CWSP-205 test Objectives


Exam Name : Wireless Security Professional
Exam Number : CWSP-206 CWSP
Exam Duration : 90 minutes
Questions in test : 60
Passing Score : 70%
Recommended Training : Official Wi-Fi Security Self Study Kit
Wi-Fi Security eLearning
Live Network Certification Training Class
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : CWNP CWSP-206 Real Questions
VCE practice test : CWNP Certified Wireless Security Professional Practice Test

Security Policy - 10%
Define WLAN security Requirements
- Evaluate and incorporate business, technical, and applicable regulatory policies (for example, PCI-DSS, HIPAA, GPDR, etc.)
- Involve appropriate stakeholders
- Review client devices and applications
- Review WLAN infrastructure devices

Develop WLAN security policies
- Translate security requirements to high-level policy statements
- Write policies conforming to common practices including definitions of enforcement and constraint specification
- Ensure appropriate approval and support for all policies
- Implement security policy lifecycle management

Ensure proper training is administered for all stakeholders related to security policies and ongoing security awareness
Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Attacks - 30%

Identify potential vulnerabilities and threats to determine the impact on the WLAN and supporting systems and verify, mitigate, and remediate them
- Use information sources to identify the latest vulnerabilities related to a WLAN including online repositories containing CVEs
- Determine the risk and impact of identified vulnerabilities
- Select appropriate actions to mitigate threats exposed by vulnerabilities
Review and adjust device configurations to ensure conformance with security policy
Implement appropriate code modifications, patches and upgrades
Quarantine unrepaired/compromised systems
Examine logs and network traffic where applicable
- Describe and detect possible, common WLAN attacks including eavesdropping, man-inthe-middle, cracking, phishing, and social engineering attacks
- Implement penetration testing procedures to identify weaknesses in the WLAN
Use appropriate penetration testing processes including scope definition, information gathering, scanning, attack, and documentation procedures
Select and use penetration testing tools including project documentation, scanners, hardware tools, Kali Linux, protocol analyzers, WLAN auditing tools (software and hardware)
- Implement network monitoring to identify attacks and potential vulnerabilities
Use appropriate tools for network monitoring including centralized monitoring, distributed monitoring, and Security Information Event Management (SIEM) systems
Implement mobile (temporary), integrated and overlay WIPS solutions to monitor security events
Describe and perform risk analysis and risk mitigation procedures
- Asset management
- Risk Ratings
- Loss expectancy calculations
- Develop risk management plans for WLANs

WLAN Security Design and Architecture - 45%
Select the appropriate security solution for a given implementation and ensure it is installed and configured according to policy requirements
- Select and implement appropriate authentication solutions
WPA/WPA2-Personal (Pre-Shared Key)
WPA/WPA2-Enterprise
WPA3-SAE and 192-Bit enterprise security
802.1X/EAP
Understand the capabilities of EAP methods including EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, PEAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-SIM, and EAP-GTC
Guest access authentication
- Select and implement appropriate encryption solutions
Encryption methods and concepts
TKIP/RC4
CCMP/AES
SAE and 192-bit security
OWE
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
- Select and implement wireless monitoring solutions
Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS) - overlay and integrated
Laptop-based monitoring with protocol and spectrum analyzers
- Understand and explain 802.11 Authentication and Key Management (AKM) components and processes
Encryption keys and key hierarchies
Handshakes and exchanges (4-way, SAE, OWE)
Pre-shared keys
Pre-RSNA security (WEP and 802.11 Shared Key authentication)
TSN security
RSN security
WPA, WPA2, and WPA3

Implement or recommend appropriate wired security configurations to support the WLAN
- Physical port security in Ethernet switches
- Network segmentation, VLANs, and layered security solutions
- Tunneling protocols and connections
- Access Control Lists (ACLs)
- Firewalls

Implement authentication and security services
- Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
- Certificate Authorities (CAs)
- AAA Servers
- Client onboarding
- Network Access Control (NAC)
- BYOD and MDM

Implement secure transitioning (roaming) solutions
- 802.11r Fast BSS Transition (FT)
- Opportunistic Key Caching (OKC)
- Pre-Shared Key (PSK) - standard and per-user

Secure public access and/or open networks
- Guest access
- Peer-to-peer connectivity
- Captive portals
- Hotspot 2.0/Passpoint

Implement preventative measures required for common vulnerabilities associated with wireless infrastructure devices and avoid weak security solutions
- Weak/default passwords
- Misconfiguration
- Firmware/software updates
- HTTP-based administration interface access
- Telnet-based administration interface access
- Older SNMP protocols such as SNMPv1 and SNMPv2

Security Lifecycle Management - 15%
Understand and implement management within the security lifecycle of identify, assess, protect, and monitor
- Identify technologies being introduced to the WLAN
- Assess security requirements for new technologies
- Implement appropriate protective measures for new technologies and validate the security of the measures
- Monitor and audit the new technologies for security compliance (Security Information Event Management (SIEM), portable audits, intrastructure-based audits, WIPS/WIDS)
Use effective change management procedures including documentation, approval, and notifications
Use information from monitoring solutions for load observation and forecasting of future requirements to comply with security policy
Implement appropriate maintenance procedures including license management, sofware/code upgrades, and configuration management
Implement effective auditing procedures to perform audits, analyze results, and generate reports
- User interviews
- Vulnerability scans
- Reviewing access controls
- Penetration testing
- System log analysis
- Report findings to management and support professionals as appropriate



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug