Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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DELL-EMC E20-555 : silon Solutions and Design Specialist for Technology Architects exam Dumps

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Exam Number : E20-555
Exam Name : silon Solutions and Design Specialist for Technology Architects
Vendor Name : DELL-EMC
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E20-555 exam Format | E20-555 Course Contents | E20-555 Course Outline | E20-555 exam Syllabus | E20-555 exam Objectives


Exam Title :
Dell EMC Certified Specialist - Technology Architect - Isilon Solutions (DECS-TA)

Exam ID :
E20-555

Exam Duration :
120 mins

Questions in exam :
60

Passing Score :
60%

Exam Center :
Pearson VUE

Real Questions :
Dell EMC Isilon Solutions and Design Specialist Real Questions

VCE practice questions :
Dell EMC E20-555 Certification VCE Practice Test






Isilon Infrastructure 20%


- Describe the nature and use of Isilon nodes, components, node pools, and node compatibilities

- Describe the nature and use of latency, sequential versus random access, and endurant cache

- Describe the nature of Isilon networking, Access Zones, and use of SmartConnect



Isilon Management, Identity Management, and Advanced Applications 47%


- Describe how to determine when to use SnapshotIQ when snapshots are not recommended

- Describe data requirements regarding SmartPools, File Pools, and CloudPools

- Describe data requirements regarding SyncIQ, SmartQuotas, SmartDedupe, Antivirus, and SmartLock

- Describe the client access, client permissions and client protocol access on the Isilon cluster

- Describe the nature and use of job engines

- Describe the nature and use of RBAC and ZRBAC

- Describe journaling, file striping, data protection, metadata, and caching

- Describe replication and recovery



Solution Design Process 7%


- Describe the information requirements for designing an Isilon solution, including determining hardware and software capacity, file server consolidation, file size considerations, performance sizing impact, data types, and I/O characteristics



Sizing Considerations 18%


- Describe how data availability and protection are implemented and measured on an Isilon cluster.

- Describe how disk space is utilized for small and large files and its effects on protection overhead.

- Describe how I/O patterns and latency requirements impact workflows on the Isilon cluster

- Describe the challenges and considerations for configuring backup and archive workflows



Workload Analysis Tools 8%


- Describe the cluster monitoring with InsightIQ and isi statistics

- Describe the nature and appropriate use of workflow analysis tools: iostat, iperf, tcpdump, Wireshark, NFSstat



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DELL-EMC Design exam syllabus

 

Syllabus design

Adams, S., Bali, M., Eder, Z., Fladd, L., Garrett, K., Garth-McCullough, R., Gibson, A. M., Gunder, A., Iuzzini, J., Knott, J. L., Rafferty, J. & Weber, N. L. (2021). Caring for Students Playbook: Six Recommendations. This resource covers many ideas and practices related to creating an inclusive syllabus and course.

Addy, T. Dube, D., Mitchell, K., Sorelle, M. (2021) What Inclusive Instructors Do: Principles and Practices for Excellence in College Teaching. This book discusses key principles and practices on inclusive teaching, with a chapter focused on the syllabus.

CAST, UDL on Campus. Website dedicated to the application of Universal Design for Learning in Higher Education. See specific examples of UDL applied to course design and the syllabus. See also "Universal Design for Learning Guidelines.”

Center for Urban Education, University of Southern California (2017). Syllabus Review Guide for Equity-Minded Practice. get PDF with examples of welcoming vs. unwelcoming language and a demo syllabus.

Gin, L. et al (2021). It’s In the Syllabus…Or Is It? How biology syllabi can serve as communication tools for creating inclusive classrooms at a large-enrollment research institution. Advances in Physiology Education. Article explains the value of including all essential information students need to succeed in the syllabus.

Palmer, M. Wheeler, L. B., & Aneece, I. (2016). Does the Document Matter? The Evolving Role of Syllabi in Higher Education. Change (New Rochelle, N.Y.), 48(4), 36–47. This article explains the value of using the syllabus as a learning tool.

Richmond, A. (2016). Constructing a Learner-Centered Syllabus: One Professor’s Journey. IDEA Paper #60. Article provides a useful breakdown of the process of constructing a learner-centered syllabus.

Taylor, S., Veri, M., Eliason, M. Hermoso, JC, Bolter, N, and Van Olphen, J. (2019). The Social Justice Syllabus Design Tool: A First Step in Doing Social Justice Pedagogy. Journal Committed to Social Change on Race and Ethnicity. Volume 5, Issue 2. This article addresses the syllabus from a social justice perspective and includes a useful rubric for syllabus review in the Appendix.

Tulane University. Accessible Syllabus. Created by students and faculty, this website features sections on accessibility related to images, text, rhetoric, and policy.

Vanderbilt University. Center for Teaching. Riviere, J., Picard, D., & Coble, R. (2014). Syllabus Design. Website discusses key aspects of a learner-centered syllabus.


Dell-EMC

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Dell: EMC Will Get Us Into The Data Center

Dell Computer EMC

Dell is positioning the new Clariion CX600, which EMC unveiled this week, as its high-end array, and using it to enter the heterogeneous Unix/NT enterprise space, said Matt Brisse, Dell product manager for the new array, called the Dell/EMC CX600.

Dell will also target 100 percent Unix shops for the first time with this array, Brisse said.

"Dell has a commodity-based sales model," he said. "We can bring a value to those customers, where before they could only use proprietary or monolithic products. . . . Traditionally, Dell has a maniacal focus on costs. Now they can bring this to the Unix market."

While Dell currently offers NT and Linux servers, it does have the storage management software capabilities to leverage in mixed Unix/NT environments for a seamless user model, Brisse said.

Eighty percent of Dell's systems consultants are now Unix-certified, thanks to training and other support from partners such as EMC, Brisse said.

Consulting, planning, design and implementation services for the Clariion will be done by Dell-badged employees or, if customers prefer, personnel from third parties such as EMC, said Brisse. Dell employees are currently going through thousands of training sessions each day, including mandatory Unix training, leveraging EMC procedures, he said.

Further cementing the Dell bond with EMC is the first public acknowledgement of a manufacturing arrangement between the two. EMC executives this week said an entry-level version of the CX600 is planned to be introduced six to eight months later. The entry-level model will be manufactured by both EMC and Dell, but EMC's solution providers will be tapped to resell the EMC version.

Solution providers are concerned about Dell's low-cost push into the enterprise and how that will affect their EMC business.

The problem is not just that Dell comes in with lower numbers, said Hope Hayes, president of Alliance Technology Group, a Hanover, Md.-based EMC partner. It is more a case of how the vendor combines products and moves margins between various products to compete in the storage space.

"We see customers say they want to buy Dell servers or other products," Hayes said. "They say they also want disks. They can bring in the disks. But if Dell hears of the deal, they will come in and move things around to make the numbers. You can never beat Dell on price."

One solution provider who requested anonymity said the Dell model is driving prices down and putting pressure on margins.

"We focus on value, so Dell's model is contrary to ours. Yes, you can argue that you can make it up on value services. But they like to get margin on the hardware, too. When [Dell's in the picture, it becomes more of a price-driven scenario than a value-driven scenario. The lower end you get, the more formidable the competition with Dell.

At the lower end, deals are more margin-driven anyway, the solution provider said. "The trick to competing with Dell is know when to walk," he said. "If the price is the sole determining factor, it's hard to compete."

Short-term spiffs and special pricing to Dell from EMC shows that EMC's direct guys don't understand marketing, said another solution provider. "Sales people are coin-operated," the solution provider said. "But what about us? They are always trying to win the direct guys' hearts. They bring them into accounts. But they can make more money with Dell. Sure, EMC is saying it's moving into the channel. But the biggest beneficiary to that is their Dell relationship."

Not all solution providers agree that EMC's relationship with Dell hurts the channel.

James Kernan, president and CEO of Networks Plus Technology Group, a San Diego-based solution provider, said his company resells Dell products, including the EMC-made Clariion storage arrays, and even does subcontracting for Dell on services such as on-site consulting, design, installation and support. "This happens especially if they are in the account and create the opportunity for Dell," he said.

It helps Networks Plus that not many people resell Dell, said Kernan. "We actually make more margin on Dell than with many so-called channel-friendly vendors," he said. "If you sell Dell as a solution instead of as a single box, it works."


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug