Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exin EX0-003 : Managing Succesful Programmes exam Dumps

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Exam Number : EX0-003
Exam Name : Managing Succesful Programmes Foundation (MSPF)
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EX0-003 exam Format | EX0-003 Course Contents | EX0-003 Course Outline | EX0-003 exam Syllabus | EX0-003 exam Objectives


Multiple choice questions
75 questions per paper with one mark available per question
Five questions to be trial and not counted in scores
35 marks required to pass (out of 70 marks available) - 50%
60 minutes duration
Closed book.

The purpose of the MSP® Foundation certification is to confirm you understand the the MSP guidance thoroughly enough to work effectively with those involved in the management of a programme or to act as an informed member of a programme office, business change team or project delivery team working within an environment supporting MSP.

The Managing Successful Programmes (MSP) guidance explains the programme management principles, governance themes and transformational flow that should be applied to the management of programmes or transformational change in any environment. This syllabus is based on the 2011 edition of the MSP guidance. It addresses the requirements of exams at all three levels of qualification, i.e. foundation, practitioner and advanced practitioner.
The primary purpose of the syllabus is to provide a basis for accreditation of those involved in the management of successful programmes. It therefore documents the learning outcomes related to the use of the MSP guidance and describes the requirements a candidate is expected to meet in order to demonstrate that these learning outcomes have been achieved at each qualification level. As a result, it may, support the development of any learning materials and should be read in conjunction with the MSP foundation exam candidate guidance, the MSP practitioner exam candidate guidance and the MSP advanced practitioner exam candidate guidance.
The target audience for this document is:
 exam Board
 exam Panel
 Accredited Training Organizations.

The purpose of the foundation qualification is to determine whether a candidate has sufficient knowledge and understanding of the MSP guidance to interact effectively with those involved in the management of a programme or act as an informed member of a programme office, business change team or project delivery team working within an environment supporting MSP.

Candidates need to show that they understand the key principles and terminology within the MSP guidance. Specifically, successful candidates should be able to:
• Distinguish between projects and programmes
• Identify the MSP defined types of programme and their characteristics
• Explain the benefits of applying the MSP guidance to the management of a programme of transformational change
• Explain the purpose and areas of focus of the defined roles
• Explain the purpose of the seven MSP principles, the nine governance themes and the six transformational flow processes
• Explain the purpose of MSP programme information (documents).

The purpose of the practitioner qualification is to determine whether a candidate has sufficient knowledge and understanding of the MSP guidance to apply the guidance to their own work and, hence, act as an informed member of a programme management team. That is, someone responsible for managing, leading, supporting or advising on work within an MSP environment. Candidates should be capable of applying the MSP guidance in a relatively uncomplicated programme within an environment that uses MSP.
This level is also a prerequisite for programme management professionals progressing toward the advanced practitioner qualification, and those aspiring to become programme management professionals in the future.

Candidates need to exhibit the competences required for both the foundation and practitioner qualifications and show that they could adapt the MSP guidance to the needs of a particular programme environment.
Specifically, successful candidates should be able to:
 Determine whether MSP is an appropriate framework for an identified change initiative
 Justify specific activities that should be undertaken by each of the defined MSP roles during each of the processes of the transformational flow
 Produce, evaluate and suggest improvements to examples of MSP programme information (documents)
 Evaluate the effectiveness of the application of each of the MSP principles, the governance themes and the transformational flow processes
 Adapt the programmes approach to the governance themes to the needs of both the wider programme environment and the sponsoring organization
 Learn from experience and, as a result, propose alternative approaches that would Strengthen the effectiveness of the application of each of the MSP principles, the
governance themes and the transformational flow processes.

Generic definition from AXELOS learning outcomes exam model
Know key facts, terms and concepts from the guidance MSP learning outcomes exam model
Know facts, including terms, concepts, MSP principles, governance themes, transformational flow processes, and responsibilities from the guidance.
Section header Know facts, terms and concepts relating to the SYLLABUS AREA.
Specifically to recall the:
Level 2 Level 2 – Comprehension (understanding)
Generic definition from AXELOS learning outcomes exam model
Understand concepts from the guidance MSP learning outcomes exam model
Understand the programme environment, MSP principles, governance themes, transformational flow processes, and responsibilities from the guidance.
Section header Understand key concepts relating to the SYLLABUS AREA.
Specifically to identify:
Level 3 Level 3 – Application (using)
Generic definition from AXELOS learning outcomes assessment model
Be able to apply key concepts relating to the syllabus area for a given scenario.
MSP learning outcomes assessment model Be able to:
1) Apply the MSP principles appropriately
2) Use the governance themes appropriately
3) Create the information that is required to manage a programme successfully
4) Tailor the transformational flow processes and the governance themes appropriately for a given programme scenario.
Section header Be able to apply key concepts relating to the SYLLABUS AREA within a given programme scenario.
Specifically to:
Level 4 Level 4 – Analysis (using) Generic definition from AXELOS learning outcomes assessment model
Be able to identify, analyze and distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate use of the guidance for a given scenario.
MSP learning outcomes assessment model
Be able to identify, analyze and distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate use of the guidance through appraisal of completed products and planned or completed programme (and associated project) events for a given programme scenario.
Section header Be able to identify, analyze and distinguish between the appropriate and inappropriate use of key concepts relating to the SYLLABUS AREA within a given programme scenario.
Specifically to:
Level 5 Level 5 – professional practice (creating and justifying) Generic definition from AXELOS learning outcomes assessment model
Not included in the 4 level AXELOS learning outcomes exam model.
MSP learning outcomes assessment model
Be able to develop, evaluate and propose options for tailored approaches, designs or structures and justifying the value of those approaches.
Section header [With reference to the MSP guidance, the case study and any additional information provided in the examination paper] Be able to propose, evaluate and justify tailored approaches to the application of key concepts relating to the SYLLABUS AREA within a given programme scenario.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug