Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : EX0-007
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The purpose of the Foundation certification is to confirm that you have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the P3O guidance to interact effectively with, or act as an informed member of, an office within a P3O model. The Foundation certification is a pre-requisite for the Practitioner certification.

Multiple choice examination questions
50 questions per paper with one mark available per question
40 minutes duration
30 marks required to pass (out of 50 available) – 60%
Closed book.

The Portfolio, Programme and Project Offices (P3O®) guidance provides advice, supported by discussion and examples, on how to develop a governance structure that helps optimize an organizations investment in change alongside its Business as Usual work.
P3O qualifications are currently offered are two levels: Foundation and Practitioner.
The primary purpose of the syllabus is to provide a basis for accreditation of people involved with P3O. It documents the learning outcomes related to the use of P3O and describes the requirements a candidate is expected to fulfil in order to demonstrate that these learning outcomes have been achieved at each qualification level.
The target audience for this document is:
 test Board
 test Panel
 APMG Assessment Team
 Accredited Training Organizations
This syllabus informs the design of the exams and provides accredited training organizations with a breakdown of what the exams will assess. Details on the test structure and content are documented in the P3O Foundation and Practitioner Designs.

P3O Learning Outcomes Assessment Model 1.Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis Know facts, including terms, concepts, principles, model types and components, tools, techniques, roles and responsibilities from the guidance.
Understand the key concepts, principles, processes, themes, organizational factors and roles and explain their application.
Be able to:
(i) Justify a case to develop a P3O model (ii) Use appropriate information and techniques to identify and implement the correct P30 model for an organization (iii) Use tools and techniques appropriately (iv) Identify the functions and services to be provided by a P30 model and the correct roles to implement them for a given scenario. Be able to, analyse and distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate use of the guidance through appraisal of the justification, planning, design, implementation and running of a P3O model for a given scenario.

Syllabus Area Code OV Syllabus Area: Overview Foundation Practitioner P3O Guide Reference Know facts, terms and concepts relating to the Introduction, the principles of a P3O model and its elements. Specifically to recall:
Level Topic 01 01 Key PPM definitions: 1. PPM 2. Portfolio, programme and project 3. Portfolio, programme and project management 4. Business as Usual What a P3O is:
1. Definition of P3O
2. The potential elements of a P3O model and their definitions
 1.4, Table 1.2
Understand key concepts relating to the Overview, Principles of a P3O model and its elements including the Introduction to P3O.
Specifically to identify:
Level Topic Key concepts of a P3O:
1. The objectives of and differences between portfolios, programmes and projects 2. The objectives of and differences between portfolio, programme and project management and how they help to deliver change
Glossary The organizational context of P3O:
1. The relationship between Business as Usual, change and PPM
2. How the elements of a P3O model align to portfolio, programme and project lifecycles How a P3O provides a decision-enabling/deliverysupport model and how each P3O model element helps to deliver change
What a P3O is:
1. The relationships between the elements in a P3O model and the organization
2. The objectives and key functions of each P3O model element
Syllabus Area Code BC Syllabus Area:
Why Have a P3O=> Foundation Practitioner P3O Guide Reference Know facts, terms and concepts relating to the business justification for implementing a P3O. Specifically to recall:
Level Topic The ways that a P3O can help an organization deliver its strategy: 1. The elements of Business change governance support and enablement 2. The terms 'doing the right programmes and projects' and 'doing programmes and projects right'
Understand key concepts relating to the justification for implementing a P3O.
Specifically to identify: Level Topic How a P3O can help an organization deliver its strategy and add value, including its role in supporting and enabling business change governance
The Best Management Practice principles for extracting value from programme and project management and how a P3O model can help deliver them How to recognize stakeholders and the typical requirements of different stakeholders  The P3O Value Matrix and how it can be used to identify stakeholder needs  How to recognize the problem to be solved by establishing the P3Oand the analysis of recent issues and reviews The use of P3M3 exams to identify key P3O functions  02 07 The role of the outline Vision Statement and initial Blueprint in defining how the P3O will add value  2.4.3, Fig 2.4 The purpose, typical contents and approach to developing the P3O Business Case



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug