Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Fortinet FCNSA : Fortinet Certified Network Security Administrator ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : FCNSA
Exam Name : Fortinet Certified Network Security Administrator
Vendor Name : Fortinet
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FCNSA test Format | FCNSA Course Contents | FCNSA Course Outline | FCNSA test Syllabus | FCNSA test Objectives


Exam Detail:
The FCNSA (Fortinet Certified Network Security Administrator) test is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of individuals in network security administration using Fortinet products and solutions. Here is a detailed overview of the exam, including the number of questions and time, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The FCNSA test typically consists of multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but it is usually around 30 to 40 questions. The duration of the test is typically 60 to 90 minutes, depending on the test format and language.

Course Outline:
The FCNSA certification course covers various courses related to network security administration using Fortinet products. The course outline may include the following components:

1. Introduction to Network Security:
- Overview of network security concepts and principles
- Introduction to Fortinet's network security solutions
- Security threats and vulnerabilities

2. Fortinet Security Fabric Architecture:
- Understanding the Fortinet Security Fabric
- Fortinet products and solutions overview
- Integration and deployment of Fortinet devices

3. FortiGate Firewall Administration:
- Basic configuration of FortiGate firewalls
- Security policies and firewall rules
- NAT (Network Address Translation) and VPN (Virtual Private Network)

4. FortiGate Security Services:
- Application control and web filtering
- Antivirus and antispam protection
- Intrusion prevention system (IPS) and data leak prevention (DLP)

5. FortiAnalyzer and FortiManager:
- Log analysis and reporting with FortiAnalyzer
- Centralized management with FortiManager
- Configuration backup and restoration

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the FCNSA test are to evaluate the candidate's knowledge and understanding in the following areas:

- Network security concepts and principles
- Fortinet Security Fabric architecture and products
- FortiGate firewall administration and configuration
- FortiGate security services and features
- FortiAnalyzer and FortiManager functionalities

Exam Syllabus:
The FCNSA test syllabus covers the following topics:

1. Network Security Concepts
2. Fortinet Security Fabric
3. FortiGate Firewall Administration
4. FortiGate Security Services
5. FortiAnalyzer and FortiManager

Candidates are expected to have a solid understanding of these courses and their practical application in network security administration using Fortinet products. The test assesses their ability to configure and manage FortiGate firewalls, utilize security services, analyze logs, and perform basic troubleshooting tasks.



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Fortinet Stock Downgraded After Weakest Firewall Results Since IPO

As the network security vendor transitions to a focus on fast-growing areas such as SASE, Wall Street analysts are airing concerns.

ARTICLE TITLE HERE

Fortinet was downgraded by at least six equity analysts Friday after the network security vendor reported the first year-over-year decline in firewall sales since it went public in 2009, along with a weaker outlook for the current quarter.

MarketWatch showed downgrades on Fortinet’s stock (FTNT) from Wall Street analysts at JP Morgan, Cantor Fitzgerald, Evercore ISI, Oppenheimer, Stifel and William Blair.

[Related: Fortinet Makes Cuts To Sales, Channel, Business Development Groups]

CRN has reached out to Fortinet for comment.

Fortinet’s stock price was down about 16 percent as of this writing Friday morning, to $48.25, from its closing price of $57.59 a share on Thursday, prior to the company’s quarterly financial report.

The Fortinet results for the third quarter, ended Sept. 30, saw a gain in total revenue from a year ago, but the picture was clouded by a drop in firewall sales. Product revenue declined 0.6 percent, year-over-year, to $465.9 million.

Analysts at Stifel remain convinced that Fortinet has “best-in-class capabilities,” according to a note to investors disclosed by Seeking Alpha. However, Stifel analysts are also “concerned” that the slowdown in firewall sales is “likely a headwind to broader multi-product sales,” since firewalls are considered the “’gateway’ to selling the broader platform.”

Amid the quarterly report Thursday, Fortinet said it will be shifting more of its focus to faster-growing areas, such as SASE (secure access service edge) and security operations tools. SASE now represents 20 percent of Fortinet’s business while SecOps tools now make up 10 percent.

However, conditions have worsened for Fortinet’s secure networking business, which accounts for the remaining 70 percent of the company’s business and includes its FortiGate next-generation firewalls. Fortinet is encountering a “slowdown in secure networking market growth,” Co-Founder and CEO Ken Xie said during the company’s quarterly call with analysts Thursday.

‘Year Of Transition’

One analyst who did not change their rating for Fortinet was Shaul Eyal, managing director for equity research at investment bank TD Cowen, though he did lower his price target for the company’s stock.

In a note to investors, Eyal pointed out that Fortinet’s quarterly appliances revenue declined year over year for the first time since its IPO 14 years ago. The company’s product revenue fell short of analyst expectations by about $20 million, he noted.

The comments from top Fortinet executives Thursday suggest “current demand trends are pointing to a significant deterioration in the network firewall market,” Eyal wrote. “Coming from a period of elevated product growth, they now expect [2024] to be a year of transition as growth for appliances normalizes.”

The company’s revenue outlook for the fourth quarter has also come in below Wall Street expectations. Fortinet is now expecting revenue of between $1.38 billion and to $1.44 billion, compared to the prior analyst consensus estimate of $1.49 billion.

“We continue to see increased deal scrutiny and longer sales cycles, which is constraining their near-term results,” Fortinet CFO Keith Jensen said during the call with analysts.

The elongated sales cycles were a main culprit in Fortinet’s prior quarterly results, which similarly prompted a plunge in the company’s stock price upon release in early August.

Fortinet’s stock price is now down about 24 percent since its closing price of $75.76 on Aug. 3, just before the company’s second-quarter results came out.

SASE Shift

During Fortinet’s call with analysts Thursday, executives sought to demonstrate that its investments in SASE and SecOps will more than compensate for the slowdown in sales of firewalls down the road. The Sunnyvale, Calif.-based company issued a separate announcement Thursday to highlight how it is “sharpening its business focus to prioritize high-growth, differentiated markets.”

The SASE market is forecast to grow 20 percent a year over the next four years, while the SecOps market is expected to grow 14 percent a year, the company said in the news release.

In Fortinet’s third quarter results, service revenue grew nearly 28 percent, year over year, to reach $868.7 million, the company reported.

Fortinet is well-positioned to capitalize on major near-term market opportunities, Jensen said during the call, through “shifting their R&D and go-to-market investments to the faster-growing SASE and SecOps markets.”

Palo Alto Networks Also Hit

While stock indices including the Nasdaq Composite and S&P 500 were up Friday morning, shares in Fortinet competitor Palo Alto Networks were down 3.3 percent to $241.98 a share. The company competes with Fortinet in the markets for firewalls, SASE and SecOps.

However, Palo Alto Networks’ stock price was not down as sharply as it was in early August after Fortinet’s prior disappointing report, when Palo Alto Networks shares fell 8 percent.

Ultimately, investor concern about Palo Alto Networks prompted by the previous Fortinet financial report turned out to be unfounded, as the company regained much of its lost market value upon reporting its own quarterly results on Aug. 18. The report revealed strong growth in several of its newer businesses including SASE and AI-powered security operations, and beat analyst expectations on earnings while coming in just shy of revenue estimates.

Palo Alto Networks was the sole vendor chosen to appear in the “leaders” quadrant for Gartner’s first-ever Magic Quadrant for Single-Vendor SASE, which was published in August. Fortinet was ranked in the “challengers” quadrant for single-vendor SASE, according to the Gartner report.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug