Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Fortinet FCNSA : Fortinet Certified Network Security Administrator ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : FCNSA
Exam Name : Fortinet Certified Network Security Administrator
Vendor Name : Fortinet
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FCNSA test Format | FCNSA Course Contents | FCNSA Course Outline | FCNSA test Syllabus | FCNSA test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The FCNSA (Fortinet Certified Network Security Administrator) test is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of individuals in network security administration using Fortinet products and solutions. Here is a detailed overview of the exam, including the number of questions and time, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The FCNSA test typically consists of multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but it is usually around 30 to 40 questions. The duration of the test is typically 60 to 90 minutes, depending on the test format and language.

Course Outline:
The FCNSA certification course covers various syllabus related to network security administration using Fortinet products. The course outline may include the following components:

1. Introduction to Network Security:
- Overview of network security concepts and principles
- Introduction to Fortinet's network security solutions
- Security threats and vulnerabilities

2. Fortinet Security Fabric Architecture:
- Understanding the Fortinet Security Fabric
- Fortinet products and solutions overview
- Integration and deployment of Fortinet devices

3. FortiGate Firewall Administration:
- Basic configuration of FortiGate firewalls
- Security policies and firewall rules
- NAT (Network Address Translation) and VPN (Virtual Private Network)

4. FortiGate Security Services:
- Application control and web filtering
- Antivirus and antispam protection
- Intrusion prevention system (IPS) and data leak prevention (DLP)

5. FortiAnalyzer and FortiManager:
- Log analysis and reporting with FortiAnalyzer
- Centralized management with FortiManager
- Configuration backup and restoration

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the FCNSA test are to evaluate the candidate's knowledge and understanding in the following areas:

- Network security concepts and principles
- Fortinet Security Fabric architecture and products
- FortiGate firewall administration and configuration
- FortiGate security services and features
- FortiAnalyzer and FortiManager functionalities

Exam Syllabus:
The FCNSA test syllabus covers the following topics:

1. Network Security Concepts
2. Fortinet Security Fabric
3. FortiGate Firewall Administration
4. FortiGate Security Services
5. FortiAnalyzer and FortiManager

Candidates are expected to have a solid understanding of these syllabus and their practical application in network security administration using Fortinet products. The test assesses their ability to configure and manage FortiGate firewalls, utilize security services, analyze logs, and perform basic troubleshooting tasks.

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Best CFP test Prep Courses of 2023

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A Certified Financial Planner (CFP) is a professional designation for the financial planning profession. Financial planners can earn the CFP designation after completing the CFP Board's education, exam, experience, and ethics requirements.

One of the more challenging steps in the process, the CFP exam, is a pass-or-fail test. You may register for the CFP test after meeting the CFP Board's education requirements. Once you pass the exam, you will be one step closer to becoming a CFP professional, one of the most elite financial planning designations.

To create their list of the best CFP test prep courses, they compared each program's features, including reputation, cost, guarantees, course materials, in-person classes, special features, and more. These are the best CFP test prep courses for aspiring CFP professionals.

Certified Financial Planner (CFP): What It Is, How To Become One

What Is a Certified Financial Planner (CFP)?

Certified Financial Planner (CFP) is a formal recognition of expertise in the areas of financial planning, taxes, insurance, estate planning, and retirement saving.

Owned and awarded by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, Inc., the designation is awarded to individuals who successfully complete the CFP Board's initial exams, then continue ongoing annual education programs to sustain their skills and certification.

Key Takeaways
  • A certified financial planner (CFP) has received a formal designation from the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, Inc.
  • CFPs help individuals in a variety of areas in managing their finances, such as retirement, investing, education, insurance, and taxes.
  • Becoming a CFP is a difficult and stringent process. It requires years of experience, successful completion of standardized exams, a demonstration of ethics, and a formal education.
  • The most important aspect quality of a CFP is that they have a fiduciary duty, meaning they must make decisions with their client's best interests in mind.
  • Understanding a Certified Financial Planner (CFP)

    CFPs are there to help individuals manage their finances. This can include a variety of needs, such as investment planning, retirement planning, insurance, and education planning. The most important aspect of a CFP is to be a fiduciary of your assets, meaning that they will make decisions with your best interests in mind.

    CFPs are all-encompassing, particularly when compared to investment advisors. CFPs will usually start the process by evaluating your current finances, including any cash, assets, investments, or properties, to come up with an estimate of your income and net worth. They also take a look at your liabilities, such as mortgages and student debt.

    From this point on they work with you to come up with an individualized financial plan. For example, say you are nearing retirement, the CFP will create a financial plan that can see you through your retirement years. Or perhaps you have a child that will be starting college. The CFP can help create a financial plan to manage that cost.

    A CFP is a financial adviser who has earned a certification that indicates in-depth knowledge of financial planning. The requirements to become a CFP are some of the most difficult and stringent in the financial industry.

    CFP and Fiduciary Duty

    All CFPs are held to the standard of fiduciary duty. That means they must always put your interests as a client ahead of their own. For example, if they would more money selling one product over another, but the product that made them less money was better for you, that is the product they must recommend.

    A CFP's fiduciary duty is clearly laid out by the CFP Board and states "At all times when providing financial advice to a client, a CFP professional must act as a fiduciary, and therefore, act in the best interest of the client."

    The board goes on to state that three duties must be met by an adviser with a fiduciary duty. These are (1) duty of loyalty, (2) duty of care, and (3) duty to follow client instructions.

    How to Become a Certified Financial Planner (CFP)

    Earning the CFP designation involves meeting requirements in four areas: formal education, performance on the CFP exam, relevant work experience, and demonstrated professional ethics.

    The education requirements comprise two major components. The candidate must hold a bachelor's or higher degree from an accredited university or college. Second, the candidate must complete a list of specific courses in financial planning, as specified by the CFP Board.

    Much of this second requirement is typically waived if the candidate holds certain accepted financial designations, such as a chartered financial analyst (CFA) or certified public accountant (CPA) designation, or has a higher degree in business, such as a master of business administration (MBA).

    As for professional experience, candidates must prove they have at least three years (or 6,000 hours) of full-time professional experience in the industry, or two years (4,000 hours) in an apprenticeship role.

    Lastly, candidates and CFP holders must adhere to the CFP Board's standards of professional conduct. They must also regularly disclose information about any involvement in criminal activity, questions by government agencies, bankruptcies, customer complaints, or terminations by employers. The CFP Board conducts an extensive background check on all candidates before granting the certification.

    Even successful completion of the above steps doesn't guarantee receipt of the CFP designation. The CFP Board has final discretion on whether to award the designation to an individual.

    The Certified Financial Planner (CFP) Exam

    The CFP test includes 170 multiple-choice on more than 100 syllabus related to financial planning. The scope includes professional conduct and regulations, financial planning principles, education planning, risk management, insurance, investments, tax planning, retirement planning, and estate planning.

    The various course areas are weighted, and the most accurate weighting is available on the CFP Board website. Further questions test the candidate's expertise in establishing client-planner relationships and gathering relevant information, and their ability to analyze, develop, communicate, implement, and monitor the recommendations they make to their clients.

    Here's some additional information on the administration, costs, and scoring of the CFP exam:

  • Timing: Candidates sit for two three-hour sessions on a single day; a 40-minute break period separates the sessions. Exams are typically offered in three eight-day windows: March, July, and November.
  • Cost: $925 for an test administered at a U.S. test site, with a discount for early applications and a surcharge for late ones.
  • Passing Score: This is criterion-referenced, which means performance is measured according to a set level of required competency, rather than against the scores of other individuals who have written the same exam. This prevents any advantages or disadvantages that can occur when past exams were of lower or higher difficulty.
  • Retaking the test: If you fail, you may retake the test up to four additional times.
  • CFP vs. CFA

    Though a certified financial planner (CPA) and a chartered financial analyst (CFA) may sound similar, they are different certifications with different job functions and clients. A CFP works with individuals, often retail clients, helping them achieve their financial goals. This includes help in investing and retirement planning.

    A CFA works with corporations performing investment analysis. CFAs focus on financial reporting, analysis, and portfolio management. They can trade financial products, such as derivatives, and help in mergers and acquisitions. CFA's usually work for investment banks and hedge funds.

    Frequently Asked Questions When Do You Need a CFP?

    If you are just looking to invest money in stocks and bonds, a CFP probably isn't needed.

    If you are looking to manage your finances, investment choices, estate planning, and retirement planning, a CFP can help you with all of those needs.

    A CFP is a step above a non-designated financial advisor and has demonstrated expertise in financial planning.

    How Much Does a CFP Cost?

    How much a CFP costs will depend on your specific needs.

    On average, a CFP charges between $1,800 and $2,500 for preparing a full financial plan. You also should expect $4,000 for a flat-fee retainer or $250 per hour for hourly services.

    Is CFP the Same as CFA?

    No, CFP and CFA are not the same.

    A CFP is a certified financial planner who provides financial planning advice to individuals. This includes help with investing, retirement planning, estate planning, and tax law.

    A CFA is a chartered financial analyst who may work for an investment bank or hedge fund and performs financial analysis, modeling, trading, and portfolio management services.

    Is CFP Equivalent to MBA?

    No, a CFP is not equivalent to an MBA.

    A certified financial planner (CFP) is qualified to advise individuals on financial planning.

    The holder of a master of business degree has studied the way businesses operate.

    The career paths differ. A CFP works in financial consulting or wealth management. An MBA may be a business manager, portfolio manager, financial analyst, financial strategist, or even an entrepreneur.

    Is the CFP test Hard?

    The CFP test requires a lot of preparation and covers a wide range of syllabus in depth. The best way to ensure you pass the CFP test is by preparing for it well in advance and sticking to a study schedule.

    The Bottom Line

    Becoming a CFP takes education and experience, as well as a strong grasp of financial ethics. The test to gain this distinction is comprised of 170 questions and is split into two three-hour sessions.

    Even if candidates pass the test and meet all the requirements, the CFP Board still has the final say about whether to award this distinction. Given the stringent requirements, CFPs can be assumed to have an in-depth understanding of financial planning.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug