Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Admission-Tests GRE-Verbal : Graduate Record exam (Verbal) exam Dumps

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Exam Number : GRE-Verbal
Exam Name : Graduate Record exam (Verbal)
Vendor Name : Admission-Tests
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GRE-Verbal exam Format | GRE-Verbal Course Contents | GRE-Verbal Course Outline | GRE-Verbal exam Syllabus | GRE-Verbal exam Objectives

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The GRE-Verbal exam consists of approximately 40 multiple-choice questions. Each question may have one or more correct answers.

- Time: Candidates are given 60 minutes to complete the GRE-Verbal section. It is important to manage time effectively to answer all the questions within the allocated time.

Course Outline:
The GRE-Verbal exam is designed to assess the candidate's verbal reasoning skills, including reading comprehension, critical reasoning, and vocabulary usage. The exam evaluates the candidate's ability to understand and analyze written material. The course outline may include the following key areas:

1. reading Comprehension:
- Understanding the main idea and supporting details of a passage
- Identifying the author's tone, purpose, and perspective
- Drawing inferences and making conclusions
- Analyzing the structure and organization of a passage

2. Text Completion:
- Filling in the blanks with appropriate words or phrases
- Understanding the context and tone of the passage
- Recognizing logical relationships between words and ideas
- Inferring meaning from surrounding text

3. Sentence Equivalence:
- Selecting the two words or phrases that best complete a sentence
- Understanding the meaning of the sentence as a whole
- Recognizing synonyms, antonyms, and context clues
- Evaluating the logic and coherence of the sentence

4. Vocabulary:
- Understanding and using advanced vocabulary words
- Recognizing word relationships (synonyms, antonyms, analogies)
- Inferring meaning from context
- Developing strategies for learning and retaining new words

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the GRE-Verbal exam typically include:
- Evaluating the candidate's ability to comprehend and analyze written material.
- Assessing the candidate's critical thinking and reasoning skills.
- Testing the candidate's understanding and usage of advanced vocabulary.
- Measuring the candidate's ability to draw inferences and make logical connections within the text.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific exam syllabus for the GRE-Verbal section may include the following topics:

1. reading Comprehension:
- Understanding main ideas and supporting details
- Analyzing the structure and organization of passages
- Drawing inferences and making conclusions
- Recognizing author's tone, purpose, and perspective

2. Text Completion:
- Identifying words or phrases that best complete the sentence
- Understanding the context and tone of the passage
- Recognizing logical relationships between words and ideas
- Inferring meaning from surrounding text

3. Sentence Equivalence:
- Selecting two words or phrases that best complete the sentence
- Understanding the meaning of the sentence as a whole
- Recognizing word relationships (synonyms, antonyms, analogies)
- Evaluating the logic and coherence of the sentence

4. Vocabulary:
- Advanced vocabulary words and their meanings
- Word relationships (synonyms, antonyms, analogies)
- Inferring meaning from context
- Strategies for learning and retaining new words

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Admission-Tests Graduate braindumps


Graduate Admission Standards

All doctoral and master’s degree programs at UMass Lowell require the Graduate Record Exams (GRE) General Test, with the exception of the Master of Business Administration (MBA), which requires the Graduate Management Aptitude Test (GMAT).

Information about GRE/GMAT/MAT Waivers

The School of Education Initial Licensure Programs require copies of the appropriate MTEL scores. Other Master of Education and Education Specialist programs require proof of an initial or professional teacher license appropriate to the field. Not all M.Ed. and Ed.S. programs require the GRE. Doctoral programs in education require GRE scores. Please see the School of Education for specific examination requirements.

Institutionally Approved Language Tests

The official score report for an institutionally approved language test for students from countries where English is not the national language. he thresholds for English tests are set by the department. Institutionally approved English tests: TOEFL, TOEFL IBT Home Edition, IELTS, Duolingo, PTE Academic, and ASC English School Level 6. All test scores must be official and sent directly by the testing agency.

Request that the appropriate agency send an official test score report to the Office of Graduate Admissions.

  • UMass Lowell's school code is 3911. 
  • Engineering Applicants, please use the GRE school code 4530 to submit your scores through EngineeringCAS. If you have taken the TOEFL, have ETS send your scores to EngineeringCAS (School Code: B887) You may also self-report your scores. If you have taken the IELTS you may self-report your scores on the application.*
  • Please confirm all requirements by reviewing information in the department’s program description and the guidelines in the graduate catalog to determine what standardized tests may be required for entrance into the program that interests you. Requirements vary by program. Specific information about standardized tests may be obtained from:

    Test of English as a Second Language (TOEFL):Educational Testing ServiceBox 6151Princeton, NJ 08541-6151Educational Testing Service WebsiteTelephone: 609-771-7100

    IELTS (The International English Language Testing System)IELTS website

    Graduate Record Exams (GRE):Educational Testing ServiceBox 6000Princeton, NJ 08541-7670Educational Testing Service WebsiteTelephone: 609-771-7670

    Graduate Management Aptitude Test (GMAT):Pearson VUE5601 Green Valley DriveSuite 300Bloomington, MN55437GMAT websiteTelephone: 800-717-GMAT (4628)

    Graduate Admission FAQ

    Find answers to frequently asked questions about the admission process at Saint Louis University, including information about transcripts, financial aid and more. 

    The Application Process 

    Graduate admission requirements at Saint Louis University may vary by program. Contact the department directly for minimum test scores and other required materials. You can find contact information, as well as additional admission requirements, on degree-specific pages or answers to frequently asked admission questions below: 

    Can I apply to more than one program?

    Yes. The University offers several pre-approved dual degree programs. SLU also considers any requests to enroll in two programs and pursue multiple degrees at the same time on a case-by-case basis.

    Contact the departments of both programs to determine the eligibility and policies for a concurrent enrollment. If you wish to pursue a dual-degree, you will need to apply and be accepted by both degree programs.


    Your academic transcripts will be required for graduate admission to Saint Louis University. Learn more below: 

    Tuition and Financial Aid

    Saint Louis University's graduate tuition and fees vary by specific program.

    See a Current Schedule of Tuition & Fees

    Assistantships are awarded by individual programs or departments and usually require you to assist with teaching, research or other departmental duties. As part of your application, you’ll be asked to indicate whether you are interested in an assistantship, but you should also check with your program to see if any additional application is required. The program or department can provide you with details on the availability of assistantships.

    Fellowships are awarded to newly accepted master's or doctoral level students who demonstrate outstanding scholastic achievement and potential for success.

    More on Graduate Assistantships and Fellowships at SLU

    International students may have additional admission requirements to Saint Louis University's academic programs. Specific information can be found on degree-specific pages. For general questions, see below: 


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug