Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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HUAWEI H12-211 : Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Latest 2024 Updated HUAWEI Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD) Syllabus
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Exam Number : H12-211
Exam Name : Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD)
Vendor Name : HUAWEI
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H12-211 test Format | H12-211 Course Contents | H12-211 Course Outline | H12-211 test Syllabus | H12-211 test Objectives


Exam : H12-211 HCNA (HCDA)-HNTD

Exam Content

The HCNA-HNTD test covers basic IP network connectivity, TCP/IP technologies, Ethernet technologies such as STP and RSTP, VLAN and Link Aggregation and their implementation within Huawei switches. Routing principles and technologies including RIP and OSPF for IPv4 and IPv6 networks, WAN technologies, IP based security, network management as well as IPv4 and IPv6 based application services.

Knowledge Points



IP Network Principles

- Ethernet and IP based data forwarding processes.

- TCP/IP network protocols and data encapsulation

- VRP commands for basic navigation and configuration

- IPv4 addressing principles, address design and subnetting

- TCP/IP supporting applications such as Ping, Tracert, FTP, and Telnet.



LAN Technologies

- LAN switching operations.

- Link Aggregation application and configuration.

- VLAN and GVRP and behavior, application and configuration.

- STP and RSTP switching behavior, application and configuration.



WAN Technologies

- Principles and application of serial technologies in wide area networks.

- HDLC and PPP encapsulation principles and configuration.

- Frame Relay and PPPoE implementation at the customer edge.



Routing Technologies

- Static and dynamic routing principles,

- RIP and OSPF dynamic routing protocol function and implementation in VRP



Network Security

- Traffic Filtering technologies and their application in the enterprise network

- User management through authentication and authorization schemes.

- IPsec VPN technologies for protecting user data.

- How network security is ensured by using network security technologies and firewalls.



Network Management

- Network Management protocols and technologies.



IPv6 Networks

- IPv6 principles and technologies

- IPv6 routing technologies

- Application services for IPv6 networks



The content mentioned in this article provides a general test guide; the test may contain additional related content that is not included here.

Reference

Huawei Certified Training — HCNA: Huawei Networking Technology and Device (HNTD)

Huawei Certified Training — HCNA: Lab Guide for the Huawei Networking Technology and Device (HNTD) course

VRP Configuration Guide

Huawei Product Manuals

Recommended Training

HCNA-HNTD Training



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Huawei was once fighting for its survival. It is back to nearly $100 billion in revenue in 2023

Editor’s Note: Sign up for CNN’s Meanwhile in China newsletter, which explores what you need to know about the country’s rise and how it impacts the world.

Hong Kong CNN  — 

Huawei, the tech giant which has been a flashpoint in the escalating rivalry between Washington and Beijing, says it is “back on track” with a strong 2023.

The Shenzhen-based conglomerate said Friday it expects to bring in more than 700 billion yuan ($99 billion) in revenue in 2023, partly off a stronger than expected performance in its electronics business. That is a 9% jump from the 642.3 billion yuan ($92.4 billion) recorded in 2022.

It is, however, still below the approximate $123 billion Huawei logged in 2019.

“After years of hard work, we’ve managed to weather the storm. And now we’re pretty much back on track,” Huawei’s rotating chairman, Ken Hu, said in a year-end message to employees.

The strong performance comes after the launch of Huawei’s Mate 60 Pro smartphone in August, which had shocked industry experts who didn’t understand how the company would have the technology to make such an advanced device following sweeping efforts by the United States to restrict China’s access to foreign chips.

The smartphone has been eagerly embraced by consumers, and has allowed Huawei to snatch market share away from Apple (AAPL) in China, according to Counterpoint Research.

Huawei ranked fifth in the Chinese market as of the end of September, growing its share from 10% in the first quarter to 14% in the third quarter. Apple, meanwhile, saw its slice of the pie shrink from 20% to 15% in the same period.

Results from Huawei’s device business “surpassed expectations,” Hu said in his memo, without providing details.

The Chinese company was once the world’s second biggest seller of smartphones, but lost its position after crippling US sanctions in recent years that impeded its ability to obtain critical components for its devices.

US policymakers have long claimed that Huawei poses a national security risk, alleging that the Chinese government could use the company’s equipment to spy. The company has repeatedly denied those allegations, and tried to Boost its standing in Washington.

This year, however, Huawei has started to find its way back.

In March, the company said it was “out of crisis mode,” and reported progress on finding replacements for the components it had been cut off from by US sanctions.

The company is expected to continue its success in the new year, assuming it can expand the production of handsets powered by Kirin chips, Counterpoint analysts said in a November report, referring to the processors identified inside the Mate 60 Pro.

On Tuesday, the company launched new smartphones under Nova, its mid-range lineup, which are expected to gain popularity because of their relative affordability, according to analysts.

The sunny outlook stands in contrast to remarks made just last year by a Huawei executive, who’d said the company’s “fight to survive is not over yet.”

“Hard work has enabled us to survive and grow, but they still have serious challenges ahead of us,” Hu wrote in his memo Friday.

He warned that “geopolitical and economic uncertainties abound, while technology restrictions and trade barriers continue to have an impact on the world.”


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug