Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : MLS-C01
Exam Name : AWS Certified Machine Learning Specialty (MLS-C01)
Vendor Name : Amazon
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Amazon Certified exam contents

 

Roundtables and certification schemes in the Pan-Amazon

  • Mongabay has begun publishing a new edition of the book, “A Perfect Storm in the Amazon,” in short installments and in three languages: Spanish, English and Portuguese.
  • Author Timothy J. Killeen is an academic and expert who, since the 1980s, has studied the rainforests of Brazil and Bolivia, where he lived for more than 35 years.
  • Chronicling the efforts of nine Amazonian countries to curb deforestation, this edition provides an overview of the courses most relevant to the conservation of the region’s biodiversity, ecosystem services and Indigenous cultures, as well as a description of the conventional and sustainable development models that are vying for space within the regional economy.
  • Click the “A Perfect Storm in the Amazon” link atop this page to see chapters 1-13 as they are published during 2023 and 2024.
  • Sustainability initiatives have been organised for most of the agricultural commodities of the Pan Amazon, including palm oil, soy and beef, but also for coffee and cacao. Several of these initiatives have adopted the term roundtable in their names because it conveys the notion of inclusiveness that is a core concept in these multi-stakeholder initiatives. Typically, the stakeholders include all the participants in a supply chain, from the farmer to the retailer, but also commodity traders, consumer goods manufacturers, banks and service supplies, as well as civil society groups.

    Their shared goal is to identify effective solutions to the social and environmental challenges associated with conventional production systems. The mechanism used to reform supply chains is typically a voluntary certification system that verifies that the production, trade and transformation of a commodity has complied with a set of best practices that have been agreed to by all the parties. The search for consensus is important, because it means all of the stakeholders have agreed to accept this package of solutions and commit to supporting the commercialisation of the goods that have been certified as sustainable.

    Some environmental activists view these initiatives as a form of greenwash and have questioned their efficacy. Participating companies certify the production within their own supply chain, but roundtable initiatives have not succeeded in transforming their respective sectors. Demand for certified commodities has failed to attract a critical mass of producers that would actually transform the market and change the economic drivers of deforestation.

    Adoption is highest for coffee (40%) and cocoa (22%), while commodities linked to industrial plantations tend to be lower: palm oil (20%), sugar (3%) soy (2%) and beef (<1%). Part of the explanation for the slow uptake of the voluntary standards is the lack of demand; typically, only about fifty per cent of certified production is actually sold as a certified commodity.

    Road through soybean fields and forests in Bolivia. Image by Rhett A. Butler.

    The lack of uptake is yet another manifestation of the dilemma of allocating the cost of environmental protection and social justice. Sustainability protocols cost money, which either adds to the price of a consumer good or reduces the profit margin of commodity producers. Although North American and European consumers are concerned about deforestation, most still choose a lower-cost product, while those in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East are overwhelmingly focused on price. Moreover, global commodity markets are dominated by producers on landscapes that were transformed by agriculture decades or centuries in the past, and these farmers operate without fear of being accused of environmental crimes. Consequently, traders are not motivated to pay a premium to farmers on the agricultural frontier.

    A few producers seek to differentiate their products as organic, deforestation-free, fair-trade or antibiotic-free because they are selling their products into a differentiated market and receive a premium for their production in compensation for the extra cost and reduced yields that these systems [allegedly] entail. Others participate because it guarantees them market access. Most producers opt to circumvent the voluntary guidelines or sell to traders unconcerned about sustainability or just ignore the whole process entirely.

    Social advocates have questioned the economic benefits of certification because they tend to discriminate against small-scale producers who cannot meet the record-keeping and logistical demands of a certification process. These protocols are negotiated by large-scale producers that dominate the roundtable initiatives and tailor the certification criteria to their supply chains. As formalisation spreads throughout national and international markets, smallholders could be increasingly marginalised within regional and even local markets in contradiction with the stated social objectives of these certification schemes.

    “A Perfect Storm in the Amazon” is a book by Timothy Killeen and contains the author’s viewpoints and analysis. The second edition was published by The White Horse in 2021, under the terms of a Creative Commons license (CC BY 4.0 license).

    Read the other excerpted portions of chapter 3 here:

    Chapter 3. Agriculture: Profitability determines land use

  • Agriculture: profitability determines land use October 10, 2023
  • Agriculture in the Pan Amazon: Beef production models October 11, 2023
  • Industrial infrastructure in the Pan Amazon October 17, 2023
  • National versus global markets – beef in the Brazilian Amazon October 19, 2023
  • Livestock farming in the Andean Amazon and the rest of the Amazon October 24, 2023
  • Intensive agriculture in the Pan Amazon: Soy, maize and other field crops October 25, 2023
  • Agriculture in the Pan Amazon: Global markets for soybean and corn crops October 31, 2023
  • Agriculture in the Pan Amazon: Industrial infrastructure for grains and cereals November 1, 2023
  • Agriculture in the Pan-Amazon: Swine and poultry – Adding value to farm production November 8, 2023
  • Oil palm in the Pan Amazon November 9, 2023
  • Palm oil cultivation in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil November 13, 2023
  • What does oil palm require to reach international markets? November 14, 2023
  • Biofuels in the Pan Amazon November 21, 2023
  • Coffee and cacao in the Pan Amazon November 22, 2023
  • Cultivation and processing of Amazonian coffees November 28, 2023
  • High quality cacao in Amazonia November 29, 2023
  • Local and national food crops in the Andean Amazon December 5, 2023
  • Coca in the Amazon – The anti-development crop December 6, 2023
  • agribusiness, Agriculture, Amazon Agriculture, Amazon Biodiversity, Amazon Conservation, Amazon Destruction, Amazon People, Amazon Rainforest, Community Development, Conservation, Deforestation, Development, Environment, Forests, Rainforests, Sustainable Development, Threats To Rainforests, Threats To The Amazon, Tropical Forests

    Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Latin America, Peru, South America, Suriname, Venezuela

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    Group O Receives ISTA Transport Testing Lab Certification

    (MENAFN- EIN Presswire) The best time to begin ISTA packaging testing is during new product development.” - Randal Goff, Group O VP of Engineering & TechnologyMILAN, IL, UNITED STATES, January 3, 2024 /EINPresswire / -- Group O, a leading provider of packaging solutions , announced its certification as a Transport Testing Laboratory by the International Safe Transit Association (ISTA).

    “Becoming an ISTA-certified testing lab underscores Group O's commitment to delivering packaging solutions that exceed industry benchmarks and prioritizes the safety and integrity of products during transit,” said Group O CEO, Kevin Kotecki.

    Group O's certified team conducts pre-shipment tests on packaged products, strictly adhering to ISTA® Test Projects and Procedures. Tests include compression, incline impact, drop, climate, and vibration testing. They evaluate the results, provide a comprehensive analysis, and complete andsubmit Certified Laboratory Test Report forms.

    By subjecting packaging materials to rigorous testing, businesses can ensure its resilience against the challenges posed during transportation. In the absence of thorough testing, vulnerabilities in packaging can go unnoticed, significantly elevating the risk of damages to products during shipment.

    “The best time to begin ISTA packaging testing is during new product development,” said Randal Goff, Group O VP of Engineering & Technology.“By assessing the strength and reliability of shipping cartons early in the process, they can help businesses proactively mitigate risks and uphold the highest quality standards. It's not just about packaging; it's about ensuring the trust and satisfaction of customers."

    This certification covers a comprehensive range of protocols, including 1A, 1C, 1G, 2A, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3F, 3L-Small, 3L-A, 3L-D, 3L-G, 3L-H, 6-AMAZON Boxing, 6-AMAZON Type A, 6-AMAZON Type B, 6-AMAZON Type D, 6-AMAZON Type G, 6-AMAZON Type H, 6-FedEx-A, 6-SAMSCLUB, 7D.

    To learn more visit the ISTA Packaging Performance Testing page on their website .

    Sarah ReemtsmaGroup O+1 309-736-8222email us hereVisit us on social media:FacebookTwitterLinkedInInstagramYouTube

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    Legal Disclaimer:MENAFN provides the information “as is” without warranty of any kind. They do not accept any responsibility or liability for the accuracy, content, images, videos, licenses, completeness, legality, or reliability of the information contained in this article. If you have any complaints or copyright issues related to this article, kindly contact the provider above.


     




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug