Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : NSE8-810
Exam Name : Fortinet Network Security Expert 8 Written (FortiOS 5.6)
Vendor Name : Fortinet
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NSE8-810 test Format | NSE8-810 Course Contents | NSE8-810 Course Outline | NSE8-810 test Syllabus | NSE8-810 test Objectives


Name: NSE 8 - Network Security Expert 8 Written test (810).
Available worldwide at: Pearson VUE Test Centers
Number of questions: 60
Time allowed to complete: 120 minutes
Scoring method: Answers must be 100% correct for credit. There are no partial credit given or deductions for incorrect answers. You will receive a document containing a general pass or fail result, and indication as to which sections you passed or failed.
Type of questions: Multiple choice and multiple select
Time required between attempts: 15 days

The practical test is an in-person test. They offer multiple NSE 8 test locations across the world. The practical test is a two-day, hands-on evaluation. During the practical exam, you must successfully configure and validate a complete network topology involving multiple Fortinet products.

Available at: Fortinet offices – Check the schedule for upcoming sessions
Number of tasks: 38
Time allowed to complete: 2 days, proctored
Scoring method: Answers must be 100% correct for credit. There are no partial credit given or deductions for incorrect answers. Type of tasks: Hands-on configuration and troubleshooting
Time required between attempts: 15 days
Scoring: You will receive a document containing a general pass or fail result. No further details or assistance will be provided.
Number of attempts allowed: 3 attempts

1. Security Architectures
a) Fortinet cloud security solutions
i) FortiGate VM models and licensing
ii) FortiGate VM deployments
iii) Fortinet on private clouds
iv) Fortinet on public clouds
b) Designing resilient solutions
i) Fortinet solutions advanced high availability features
ii) Fortinet solutions operation and deployment modes
iii) FortiGate Cluster protocol
iv) FortiGate Session Life Support protocol
v) Session-aware load balancing clustering
vi) Load balancing
vii) Fault tolerance
c) Designing enhanced Fortinet solutions
i) Fortinet solutions for specific scenarios
(1) Secure access networks
(2) Web application security
(3) Advanced threat protection
(4) Cloud security
(5) Enterprise firewall
d) Fortinet high-end solutions
i) FortiGate 3000 Series
ii) FortiGate 5000 Series
iii) FortiGate 7000 Series
2. Hardware acceleration
a) Hardware acceleration overview
i) Content processors
ii) Security processors
iii) Network processors
iv) FortiGate blades
v) FortiGate chassis
b) Traffic in Fortinet products
i) Traffic offloading
ii) Life of a packet
iii) Fortinet communication ports and protocols
3. Networking
a) Advanced routing
i) Static routing
ii) Dynamic routing
iii) Routing and high availability
iv) Asymmetric routing
v) Secure SD-WAN
b) Advanced NAT
i) Central NAT
ii) NAT64
iii) NAT46
iv) DNS64
c) VPN technologies
i) Advanced IPsec
ii) Advanced SSL
d) Network troubleshooting
i) Debugging tools
ii) Diagnostic tools
iii) Routing and VPN troubleshooting
iv) CLI in Fortinet solutions
4. Authentication
a) Authentication with Fortinet products
i) Advanced single sign-on
ii) RADIUS
iii) Two-factor authentication
iv) 802.1x
v) Certificate-based authentication
vi) Troubleshooting
5. Content inspection
a) Inspection modes
i) SSL/SSH
ii) Certificate
iii) Sandbox inspection
b) FortiOS security profiles
i) Antivirus
ii) Intrusion prevention systems (IPS)
iii) Application control
iv) Web filtering
v) DNS filtering
vi) VoIP inspection
vii) Session helpers
c) FortiGuard services
6. Security operations
a) Fortinet solutions APIs
i) Rest API
b) Handling security events with Fortinet solutions
i) FortiSIEM
ii) FortiAnalyzer
iii) Log analysis
iv) Event management
c) Fortinet central management solutions
i) FortiManager
ii) FortiCloud
7. Integrated Solutions
a) Integrate Fortinet solutions for advanced threat protection
b) FortiLink
c) Fortinet wireless solutions
d) Fortinet authentication solutions
e) Fortinet hybrid solutions (traditional network and cloud)
8. Enhanced Technologies
a) Fortinet enhanced solutions including:
i) FortiWeb
ii) FortiADC
iii) FortiDDoS
iv) FortiAuthenticator
v) FortiMail
1. FortiOS Administration
a) VDOMs
b) Proxies
c) Resilient networking
2. FortiOS Networking
a) VPN deployments
b) IPv6 networking
c) Advanced routing
3. Authentication
a) Single sign-on
b) Authentication methods
4. Content Inspection
a) Traffic inspection
b) Traffic control
5. Security Fabric
a) Fortinet Security Fabric
6. Secure Access
a) Fortinet Secure Access solutions
7. Security Operations and Management
a) FortiManager operation
b) FortiSiem operation
c) FortiAnalyzer operation
8. Enhanced Technologies
a) FortiWeb to secure web applications
b) Protection against DDoS attacks
c) FortiMail to secure mail applications
d) FortiADC to load balance traffic



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug