Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : OMG-OCUP2-INT200
Exam Name : OMG Certified UML Professional 2 (OCUP 2)
Vendor Name : OMG
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OMG-OCUP2-INT200 test Format | OMG-OCUP2-INT200 Course Contents | OMG-OCUP2-INT200 Course Outline | OMG-OCUP2-INT200 test Syllabus | OMG-OCUP2-INT200 test Objectives

Exam Details for OMG-OCUP2-INT200 OMG Certified UML Professional 2 (OCUP 2):

Number of Questions: The test typically consists of multiple-choice questions, with a total of around 90 questions.

Time Limit: The total time allocated for the test is usually 150 minutes.

Passing Score: The passing score for the test varies, but it is generally set around 70% or higher.

Exam Format: The test is usually conducted in a proctored environment, either in-person or online.

Course Outline:

The OMG Certified UML Professional 2 (OCUP 2) course covers the following key areas:

1. UML Fundamentals:
- Introduction to UML and its purpose
- UML diagrams and their types
- UML notation and syntax
- Basic modeling concepts and relationships

2. UML Diagrams and Modeling Elements:
- Use Case Diagrams
- Class Diagrams
- Object Diagrams
- Interaction Diagrams (Sequence Diagrams and Communication Diagrams)
- State Machine Diagrams
- Activity Diagrams
- Component Diagrams
- Deployment Diagrams

3. UML Modeling Techniques and Best Practices:
- Requirements gathering and analysis using UML
- Modeling software systems and architectures
- Design patterns and their representation in UML
- System integration and interoperability using UML

4. UML and Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC):
- UML in the context of the SDLC
- UML for requirements engineering
- UML for system design and architecture
- UML for software testing and quality assurance

Exam Objectives:

The objectives of the OMG-OCUP2-INT200 test are to assess the candidate's understanding of the following:

1. UML concepts, notation, and diagram types.
2. Ability to read, interpret, and create UML models and diagrams.
3. Proficiency in applying UML modeling techniques and best practices.
4. Knowledge of UML's role in the software development life cycle.
5. Familiarity with UML-based software analysis, design, and testing.

Exam Syllabus:

The test syllabus for OMG-OCUP2-INT200 includes the following topics:

1. Introduction to UML
2. Use Case Diagrams
3. Class Diagrams
4. Object Diagrams
5. Interaction Diagrams (Sequence Diagrams and Communication Diagrams)
6. State Machine Diagrams
7. Activity Diagrams
8. Component Diagrams
9. Deployment Diagrams
10. UML Modeling Techniques and Best Practices
11. UML and Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

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OMG 2) Latest Questions


16-Year-Old Aarush Varma Isn't Allowed To Watch His Own Debut Film, Makes A Petition For 'OMG 2'

No result found, try new keyword!The picture was delayed several times before it was finally released, and after a few changes, the censor board awarded it an "A" certificate.

OMG 2 review: Akshay Kumar, Pankaj Tripathi’s laugh-out-loud film sneaks in a timely message

In the 2012 OMG, Paresh Rawal plays a snarky ‘naastik (atheist)’ with such verve that poor Krishna Vasudev Yadav from Gokul is compelled to come down to the earth to teach the former the error of his ways. In so doing, the film disses caste and creed, while taking several digs at ‘paakhandis’ across all religions who prey upon the gullible: a main character talks of, gulp, Gita, Bible and Quran in the same breath. In other words, OMG, fronted by Akshay Kumar and Paresh Rawal, bravely sent up religious hypocrisies across the board, and they all laughed their heads off even as the great sceptic Kanji Lal Mehta discovered religion.

I went into OMG 2 with a great deal of trepidation. This is 2023, and a different India. With so much polarisation around us, would a film be able to look at religion, and religious figures without getting all didactic and preachy, and, yes, majoritarian? The sequel does the smart thing by side-stepping the tricky issue of diversity by tilting it towards such a startlingly progressive, liberal point-of-view that they forget, almost, the absence of other faiths. And comes up with a crackling film which questions the lack of faith ignorant adults repose (or rather, do not) in their young people as they explore the mysteries of their bodies with natural curiosity and frankness: it is not ‘gandaa kaam’ or something wrong, and it isn’t certainly isn’t anything to be ashamed of.

It also makes a smart choice of making its lead character Kanti Sharan Mudgal already a firm Shiva bhakt, and Pankaj Tripathi slips into that role with practised ease. Kanti’s belief is tested to the hilt as his adolescent son is bullied and harassed by his school-mates and let down by his teachers for having indulged in ‘vulgar acts’. The court-room, presided over by Judge Purushottam Nagar (Malhotra, hiding his smiles through the proceedings) becomes Kanti’s battle-field as he defends his son, with combative lady lawyer Kamini Maheshwari (Yami Gautam, learning her lessons well) appearing for the accused, the school principal, and assorted snake oil dispensers and charlatans.

And every time Kanti Sharan falters, Bhole Nath’s ‘doot’ aka messenger (standing in for the lord himself , but they aren’t fooled, are we?) appears in all sorts of quirky guises, as a mendicant with dreadlocks, as a colourful harlequin zooming around in a sports car, and so on: it helps, of course, that it is Shiva, the coolest, zaniest god in the Hindu pantheon. And this time around, Akshay has even more fun: yes, he is playing antaryami, the all-knowing, but with the kind of lightness he can display when he is not taking himself seriously. The Nandi bull, Bhole Nath’s official ‘vaahan’ appearing every time he does, is a very funny, apt touch. It’s been a while since I enjoyed an Akshay Kumar performance as much as this one.

And I haven’t been taken by surprise as much as I was in OMG 2, in the best way possible. It took me some time to get used to the fact that this was a film which was taking its mission – talking up the vital importance of sex education amongst school-going children, and even more importantly, taking the shame away from such discussions — so seriously that it would get into severely explanatory mode, and stick with it. It also chooses to go all out in terms of the language used, never pulling punches, and naming things as they are, even if it is somewhat on the nose: the dialogue writers have clearly had a blast, making us laugh despite a few clunky sideswipes at Macaulay’s ‘shiksha pranali’, while emphasising the goodness of ‘sanatan dharm’. The pace is uneven, though, and some parts slacken; and the use of ‘shuddh’ Hindi is clever: it helps keep things opaque when you can go over the heads of people initially before shocked-yet-gleeful understanding hits. OMG 2 also lunges for melodramatic patches and some ‘naach-gaana’, including an all-too brief ‘taandav’.

Freedom Sale

But the film never wavers in its intent, sneaking in taboo Topics in its laugh-out-loud comic tone, and for that it ropes in the gods, which is a brilliant ploy: you get them on your side, you can get away with anything, even things that would ordinarily be deemed ‘ashleel’ (vulgar). For once, I didn’t mind being lectured at; in fact I enjoyed the ones that the very earnest and very determined Kanti Sharan Mudgal delivers himself of, once he hits his stride: such terms as ‘hasth maithun’, ‘ling’, ‘yoni’, ‘naisargik kriya’, all come tripping off his very deft tongue – it helps too that Tripathi is a master of delivery — all to excellent purpose.

A mainstream Hindi film taking up cudgels on behalf of the proponents of catching ‘em young? Speaking straight and true? Mentioning the wonders of the Kamasutra? Opening up syllabuses to include sex education? Yes, yes, and yes. Omg.

OMG 2Cast: Akshay Kumar, Pankaj Tripathi, Pavan Malhotra, Yami Gautam, Govind Namdeo, Brijendra KalaDirector: Amit RaiRating: 3.5/5

OMG 2 Trailer Unleashes Akshay Kumar's Powerhouse Performance

No result found, try new keyword!The film takes storytelling to a whole new level, revolving around Kanti Sharan Mudgal (Pankaj Tripathi), a family man of faith who takes on the system to defend his beloved son.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug