Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PCCE
Exam Name : NFPA Paralegal CORE Competency Exam
Vendor Name : Social-Work-Board
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PCCE test Format | PCCE Course Contents | PCCE Course Outline | PCCE test Syllabus | PCCE test Objectives


The format of the PCC test follows the proven structure
of NFPAs Paralegal Advanced Competency test (PACE).

The exam:

- is two and one-half hours in length;

- consists of 125 multiple choice questions;

- is computer administered with instant
preliminary results, followed by official scoring
run results provided at least quarterly;

- is widely available at many testing centers with
examinations given Monday – Friday, and in
some locations, weekends and evenings;

- consists of two domains:

~ Paralegal Practice – 52%

~ Substantive Areas of Law – 48%

- is based on information from coursework in various
paralegal programs and basic knowledge all
paralegals should possess as well as genuine skills
considered essential to basic paralegal competency;

- is also a test of paralegal ethics, legal technology and
key terminology

to provide the groundwork for expanding paralegal
roles and responsibilities;

- to provide the public and legal community with
a mechanism to gauge the core competencies of
paralegals;

- to be used in states considering the regulation of
paralegals; and

- to be used by paralegal programs as an exit exam
or Assurance of Learning tool.

Bachelors degree in any subject, plus a paralegal certificate;

no experience or CLE required; OR

- Bachelors degree in paralegal studies; no experience or
CLE required; OR

- Bachelors degree in any subject, no paralegal certificate,
6 months experience and 1 hour of ethics taken in the year
preceding the test application date; OR

- Associates degree in paralegal studies, no experience or
CLE required; OR

- Associates degree in any subject, a paralegal certificate,
no experience or CLE; OR

- Associates degree in any subject, no paralegal certificate,
1 year experience and 6 hours of CLE, including 1 hour of
ethics taken in the year preceding the test application date; OR

- Paralegal certificate from a program that meets or exceeds
the requirements set forth in NFPAs Short Term Paralegal
Program Position Statement, 1 year experience and 6 hours of
CLE, including 1 hour of ethics, taken in the year preceding
the test application date; OR

- Active, duty, retired or former military personnel qualified
in a military operation specialty as a paralegal and 1.0 hour of
ethics CLE within the year preceding the test application; OR

- Candidates who are within two months of graduating and
registered for the PCC test by a Director of a paralegal
studies program participating in the PCCE Assurance of
Learning (AoL) Program at the Partner level; OR

- High school diploma or GED, 5 years experience and 12 hours
of CLE, including 1 hour of ethics, taken within 2 years
preceding the test application date.



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Social Work

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CBSE Class 10 Social Science Preparation: trial Question Papers and Tips for Top Score in Board test 2024

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is set to begin the class 10 board test in the month of February 2024. The exams are scheduled to commence from February 15 to April 10, 2024. However, the detailed examination time table is yet to be released by CBSE.Social science is often viewed as a subject with an extensive syllabus that covers a wide range of topics. However, despite its vastness, it has also been accepted as a subject that provides excellent scoring opportunities.While the Class 10 Social Science syllabus is extensive, consistent dedication and thorough coverage of the syllabus can ensure proper understanding of subject.Here are a few preparation tips for scoring well in the CBSE class 10 Social Science test 2024.Understand all the theoriesGiven the theoretical nature of Social Science, familiarity with the theory is essential. It is best to begin your test preparation by reading through the chapters. While an in-depth understanding is not required at first, gaining a basic understanding of all the chapters is beneficial. This fundamental understanding lays the groundwork for more comprehensive and effective Social Science test preparation. Be thorough with the syllabus for in-depth studyConcentrate on deep study for effective social science learning. Ensure concept clarity by relating them across and within chapters. Pay close attention to the Assertion/Reasoning, Statement-based, and Case study-based questions, which assess your conceptual understanding. Identify and address your weak points while focusing on the content in NCERT books. Familiarise yourself with the detailed blueprint provided by CBSE, which outlines the examination format and the distribution of marks by subject.Map questions are importantDon't overlook maps and diagrams in your Social Science preparation. Expect questions on these courses in your exam, covering aspects like identifying states with major soil types, leading agricultural producers, and significant geographical features. Ensure thorough familiarity with all maps and diagrams, practicing them at least twice for a well-rounded preparation.Practise writing answersAnswer writing is a crucial aspect of Social Science preparation. It plays a vital role in reinforcing your understanding of the subject. It is recommended to write answers after learning them, as this practice enhances memory retention. Testing yourself is equally essential to pinpoint your weaker areas. Following the completion of each chapter, it is advisable to attempt a chapter-test to gauge your comprehension and identify areas that may require further attention. This systematic approach contributes to a more comprehensive and effective study strategy for Social Science.Keep time for daily revisionEstablish a consistent revision schedule for each subject (History, Geography, Economics, and Civics) in advance. Consider the content of each chapter, allocating more time for subjects that require deeper revision. Maintain balance, as all four subjects carry equal weightage.Utilise trial papers and previous year questionsTake advantage of trial papers as part of your Social Science test preparation. These papers include questions from various chapters and provide a thorough test of your preparedness for each topic. Solving trial papers not only assesses your breadth of knowledge, but also improves your ability to formulate concise and effective responses, maximising both time and speed. It's a good idea to time yourself during these practise sessions, with a 3-hour deadline to simulate real-world test conditions and Excellerate your time management skills. Below is the official CBSE Class 10 test 2024 Social Science trial paper.Sample question paper Social Science (Code 087) Class x

Major in Social Work

Overall employment of social workers is projected to grow 11 percent from 2018 to 2028, much faster than the average for all occupations, with the highest demand in healthcare, mental health and substance abuse areas. Majoring in social work provides students with many opportunities. Social workers provide the bulk of mental health services in the US.

BSW graduates are employed in family service agencies, child welfare organizations, nursing homes, criminal justice agencies, and schools to name just a few. Clients may consist of individuals, families, groups, organizations or communities.


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug