Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PCCSA
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PCCSA test Format | PCCSA Course Contents | PCCSA Course Outline | PCCSA test Syllabus | PCCSA test Objectives


Exam Name : Cybersecurity Associate
Exam Number : PCCSA
Exam Duration : 60 minutes
Questions in test : 50
Passing Score : 70%
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : Palo Alto PCCSA Real Questions
VCE practice test : Palo Alto Networks Certified Cybersecurity Associate Practice Test

The Palo Alto Networks Certified Cybersecurity Associate (PCCSA) possesses knowledge of cutting-edge technology available today to manage the cyber threats of tomorrow. The PCCSA certification should be pursued by students and individuals new to cybersecurity to validate up-to-date knowledge on cyber-threats and cyber-security.

Section Objectives Cybersecurity Foundation 1. Cybersecurity Landscape
- Modern computing trends
- New application framework and threat vectors
- Turbulence in the cloud
- SaaS application risks
- Compliance and security are not the same
- accurate high-profile cyber-attack examples
- Cyberthreats
- Attacker profiles and motivations
- Modern cyber-attack strategy
- Endpoint security basics
- Cyber-attack Techniques and Types
- Malware
- Vulnerabilities and exploits
- Spamming and phishing
- Bots and botnets
Spamming botnets
DDoS botnets
Financial botnets
- Wi-Fi and Advanced Persistent Threats
- Wi-Fi vulnerabilities
Wired equivalent privacy
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2/WPA3)
- Wi-Fi man-in-the-middle attacks
Evil Twin
Jasager
SSLstrip
- Advanced Persistent Threats Cybersecurity Gateway 1. The Connected Globe
- The NET: How things connect
- Introduction to networking devices
- Routed and routing protocols
- Area networks and topologies
- Domain Name System (DNS)
Physical, Logical, and Virtual Addressing
- IP addressing basics
- Introduction to subnetting

Packet Encapsulation and Lifecycle
- The OSI and TCP/IP models
- Data encapsulation
Network Security Models
- Perimeter-based network security strategy
- Zero Trust security
Core Zero Trust design principles
Zero Trust conceptual architecture
Key Zero Trust criteria and capabilities
Implementing a Zero Trust design
Cloud and Data Center Security
- Cloud computing depends on virtualization
- Cloud computing security considerations and requirements
- Traditional data security solution weaknesses
- East-west traffic protection
- Implementing security in virtualized data centers 6. Network Security Technologies
- Firewalls
Packet filtering firewalls
Stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewalls
Application firewalls
- Intrusion detection and prevention systems
- Web content filters
- Virtual private networks
Point-to-point tunneling protocol)
Layer 2 tunneling protocol
Secure socket tunneling protocol
Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption
OpenVPN
Internet Protocol Security
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
- Data loss prevention
- Unified Threat Management
- Security information and event management 7. Endpoint security
- Anti-malware
Signature-based
Container-based
Application whitelisting
Anomaly detection
- Anti-spyware
- Personal firewalls
- Host-based Intrusion Prevention Systems (HIPS)
- Mobile device management
Cloud, Virtualization, and Storage Security
- Cloud computing
- Virtualization
- Local and remote storage
Networking Concepts
- Server and system administration
Patch management
Configuration management
- Directory services
- Structured host and network troubleshooting
- ITIL fundamentals
- Help desk and technical support Cybersecurity Essentials
Security Operating Platform
Network Security
- Next-generation firewalls
Application identification
User Identification
Content identification
Log correlation and reporting
- Palo Alto Networks Expedition (Migration Tool)
- Network security management (Panorama)
Endpoint Protection
- Advanced endpoint protection (Traps)
Malware prevention
Exploit prevention
Traps deployment architecture
Traps in action
- Mobile security and VPN management (GlobalProtect)
Cloud Security
- Cloud monitoring and compliance (Evident)
- SaaS security (Aperture)
SaaS threat prevention
Data exposure visibility
Contextual data exposure control
Advanced document classification
Retroactive policy
Application Framework and Logging Service
- Behavioral analytics (Magnifier)
- Log management (Logging Service)
- Threat intelligence (AutoFocus)
Priority alerts and tags
Threat correlation
Actionable intelligence
- Threat indicator sharing (MineMeld)
- Malware analysis (WildFire)
Behavior-based cyberthreat discovery
Threat prevention with global intelligence sharing
Integrated logging, reporting, and forensics



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug