Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Prove you have the knowledge to navigate modern marketing challenges. The Digital Marketing Pro program leverages the power of partnership between the AMA and the Digital Marketing Institute to help you get world-class learning and dual digital marketing certification credentials.

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Uncovering the internet's most enduring threat: The Email Threat Landscape

Twenty-three years ago, a Filipino computer science student realized he could no longer afford to pay for internet access. But Onel de Guzman was not one to deliver up. A year earlier, he had laid out a password-stealing scheme in his thesis proposal at AMA College. The school rejected it, but Guzman was determined not to let his efforts go to waste. He put his proposal into practice, building the computer worm, which he dubbed ILOVEYOU, to steal other internet users' passwords and use their accounts without paying for access.

Guzman initially designed the bug to only work in Manila, where he lived. However, upon seeing how successful his worm was, curiosity got the better of him. Guzman lifted the bug's geographical restrictions. Chaos ensued. In just ten days, Guzman's worm had infected 45 million Windows computers and caused $10 billion in damages. Guzman, just 24 years old, had inadvertently created the world's first phishing email. 

Nearly a quarter of a century later, the world has largely forgotten Onel de Guzman. When he created the worm, the Philippines had no law prohibiting malware creation, and Guzman miraculously avoided prosecution. But Guzman's actions echo throughout history; in the second quarter of 2023 alone, VIPRE Security Group detected over 230 million malicious emails. 

Today, malicious emails plague the internet. From the most powerful multinationals to normal social media users, email threats can – and will – tarnish reputations and drain bank accounts. To effectively combat email threats, they must understand the landscape. VIPRE's Q2 Email Threat Report helps us do just that. 

Who is being attacked? 

While Guzman's attack was indiscriminate, cybercriminals today have favorite targets. In Q2 2023, Information Technology (IT) organizations received by far the most phishing emails, followed by government entities (21%), educational institutions (11%), the financial sector (9%), healthcare organizations (9%), and construction companies (4%). 

Interestingly, cybercriminals targeted the financial sector most often in Q1 2023. Attacks on healthcare organizations also fell significantly from Q1 to Q2. This fall is likely because the financial and healthcare sectors, in the wake of a tough quarter, have upped their defenses against phishing attacks. Hackers have likely switched to targeting government agencies because they are notorious for having poor cybersecurity, handling an extraordinary amount of sensitive data, and it's relatively easy to discover what defenses they have in place. 

What techniques do attackers use? 

A staggering majority (85%) of phishing emails utilize malicious links embedded in an email's content, while only 15% hide them in attachments. Most modern internet users know the dangers of opening attachments; Guzman hid his Love Bug in a spoof attachment. It's a technique as old as email threats themselves, and users are wise to it, so cybercriminals avoid using it.  However, malicious links in an email's content are more challenging to detect. Smart social engineering tactics can fool even the savviest users into clicking a spoof link. Hyper-responsive touch screens also make clicking a link embedded in text by mistake a distinct possibility. 

While Guzman played on emotional weaknesses, disguising his malicious attachment as a love letter, modern cybercriminals use a more advanced, sophisticated approach, where they impersonate trusted brands. In Q1 2023, cybercriminals impersonated Microsoft most often, followed by DHL, WeTransfer, and Apple. In Q2, Microsoft still reigned supreme, with Apple, DocuSign, and SpareBank replacing the runners-up.

What are the new attack techniques to watch out for? 

Twenty-three years on from the first phishing email, cybercriminals continue to innovate. In June 2023, VIPRE AV Labs discovered that cybercriminals had begun to use QR codes for phishing unsuspecting victims. 

VIPRE also discovered a new malspam campaign containing a ".docx" attachment which, in turn, contained a malicious external resource page that was called when the user opened the file. The campaign exploits the CVE-2022-30190, or "Follina," vulnerability to facilitate remote code execution (RCE) on the victim's system by leveraging the Microsoft Support Diagnostic Tool (MSDT). 

What about business email compromise (BEC)?

VIPRE classified 48% of scam emails in 2023 as BEC scams. BEC scams attempt to fool users into transferring money with social engineering techniques and typically impersonate a high-level executive. According to VIPRE, BEC scams tripled from Q1 to Q2 2023. 

Commonly used BEC phrases include:

  • "Complete an assignment for me."
  • "Swift email response"
  • "Confidential"
  • Commonly spoofed senders include examples like:

    And commonly used domains are those from free email services, such as:

  • Gmail.com
  • Outlook.com
  • Yahoo.com
  • The legacy of the ILOVEYOU worm continues reverberating through the digital landscape. While Guzman's actions went largely unpunished due to the absence of specific laws at that time, his inadvertent creation of the first phishing email set a precedent for cybercriminals to exploit vulnerabilities in email systems.

    Today, malicious emails have become a pervasive threat, targeting various sectors, with IT organizations being the primary victims in Q2 2023, followed by government entities and educational institutions. Cybercriminals' tactics have evolved, with most relying on malicious links in email content to deceive users. These attacks often impersonate trusted brands to increase their chances of success.

    As cybercriminals continue to innovate, new attack techniques emerge, such as using QR codes for phishing and exploiting vulnerabilities like CVE-2022-30190. The constant evolution of email threats demands heightened awareness and robust defenses from individuals and organizations alike.

    Understanding the email threat landscape is crucial for combating these attacks effectively. Through vigilance, education, and improved cybersecurity measures, they can work towards mitigating the impact of malicious emails and protecting their digital identities and assets in an ever-changing cyber world.


    About the Author: Josh is a Content writer at Bora. He graduated with a degree in Journalism in 2021 and has a background in cybersecurity PR. He's written on a wide range of topics, from AI to Zero Trust, and is particularly interested in the impacts of cybersecurity on the wider economy.

    Dak Lak village chief serves as role model in local movements

    (VOVWORLD) - As the head of Buor hamlet in the Central Highland province of Dak Lak, Y Siem Bkrong a.k.a. Ama Thap always takes the lead in local movements. Ama Thap has contributed greatly to improving local people’s lives. 

    All the roads in Buor hamlet, Hoa Xuan commune, are shaded by colorful bougainvillea trees. They were planted under the direction of hamlet chief Ama Thap.

    “Hamlet chief Ama Thap has asked the villagers to clean the roads and create green spaces by planting trees. We are delighted to follow his lead,” said H’Lep Nie, a local resident.

    Ama Thap also took the lead in crop restructuring by intercropping pepper and durians on his coffee farm. He encouraged the villagers to follow his successful model and apply technology to their farming and husbandry. Thap actively supports poor and policy beneficiary families and helps them stabilize their lives.

    “Ama Thap instructs us in farming techniques and administrative procedures. He has helped us develop the local economy and Excellerate our standard of living,” Y Sol Buon Dap of Buor hamlet said.

    Ama Thap recalled that in 2011 he was incited by hostile forces to get involved in illegal activities. When he realized their bad intentions, he went with local officials from house to house to explain the hostile forces’ wicked schemes to the people. 

    For his contribution Ama Thap was appointed deputy chief and then chief of his hamlet. He also holds the post of Deputy Secretary of the hamlet’s Party cell.

    “I persuaded local people not to be incited by the hostile forces and encouraged them to focus on developing the local economy in order to have a better life. With government support for irrigation, farming techniques, and upgraded village roads, the people are now happier and feel more secure,” said Ama Thap.

    Mr. Nguyen Duc Thuan, Secretary of Hoa Xuan commune’s Party Committee, said, “Ama Thap is young, dynamic, dedicated, and respected by his neighbors. He has started several initiatives in new rural development, and is very active in local movements.”

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug