Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PW0-071
Exam Name : Certified Wireless Technology Specialist - Sales (CWTS)
Vendor Name : CWNP
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PW0-071 test Format | PW0-071 Course Contents | PW0-071 Course Outline | PW0-071 test Syllabus | PW0-071 test Objectives

Exam Name : Wireless Technology Specialist
Exam Number : PW0-071 CWTS
Exam Duration : 90 minutes
Questions in test : 60
Passing Score : 70%
Recommended Training : Official Self Study Kit
Live Wi-Fi Fundamentals Training Class
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : CWNP PW0-071 Real Questions
VCE practice questions : CWNP Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Practice Test

Wi-Fi Technology, Standards, and Certifications 25%
Define the roles of the following organizations in providing direction and accountability within the wireless networking industry
- Wi-Fi Alliance
- Local regulatory authorities
Define basic characteristics of and concepts relating to Wi-Fi technology
- Range, coverage, and capacity
- Frequencies/channels used
- Channel reuse and co-location
- Infrastructure and ad hoc modes
- Network discovery via active and passive scanning
- 802.11 authentication and association
- Data rates and throughput
- The distribution system and roaming
- Protection Mechanisms
- Power saving operation
- Dynamic rate switching
Summarize the basic attributes of the following WLAN standards, amendments, and product certifications
- 802.11a
- 802.11b
- 802.11g
- 802.11n
- Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) certification
- WMM Power Save (WMM-PS) certification
- Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2) certification
- Enterprise
- Personal
Explain the role of Wi-Fi as a network access technology
- The OSI reference model
Hardware and Software 20%
Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following wireless network components. Choose the appropriate implementation or configuration steps in a given scenario.
- Access Points
- Controller-based
- Autonomous
- Cooperative
- Mesh
- Wireless LAN Routers
- Wireless Bridges
- Wireless Repeaters
- WLAN Controller
- Distributed and centralized data forwarding
- Power over Ethernet (PoE) Devices
- 802.3af and 802.3at
- Midspan
- Endpoint
Identify the purpose, features, and functions of the following client device types. Choose the appropriate installation or configuration steps in a given scenario.
- PC Cards (ExpressCard, CardBus, and PCMCIA)
- USB2
- PCI, Mini-PCI, and Mini-PCIe, and Half Mini PCIe cards
- Workgroup Bridges
- Client utility software and drivers
Identify the purpose, features, and proper implementation of the following types of antennas.
- Omni-directional / dipole
- Semi-directional
- Highly-directional
Describe the proper locations and methods for installing RF antennas
- Internal and external (to the AP) antennas
- Pole/mast mount
- Ceiling mount
- Wall mount
Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals 20%
Define the basic concepts and units of RF measurements, identify when they are used, and perform basic unit conversion.
- Watt (W) and milliwatt (mW)
- Decibel (dB)
- dBm
- dBi
Identify and explain RF signal characteristics
- Frequency
- Wavelength
- Amplitude
- Phase
Identify factors which affect the range and rate of RF transmissions
- Line-of-sight requirements
- Interference (Wi-Fi and non-Wi-Fi)
- Environmental factors, including building materials
- Free Space Path Loss
Define and differentiate between the following physical layer wireless technologies
- 802.11b HR/DSSS
- 802.11g ERP
- 802.11a OFDM
- 802.11n HT
Define concepts which make up the functionality of RF spread spectrum communication
- 802.11 channels
- Co-location of 802.11a/b/g/n systems
- Adjacent-channel and co-channel interference
- WLAN / WPAN co-existence
- CSMA/CA operation
- Half duplex communications
Understand and apply basic RF antenna concepts
- Passive Gain
- Beamwidth
- Simple diversity
- Polarization
Identify the use of the following WLAN accessories and explain how to select and install them for optimal performance and regulatory domain compliance
- RF cables
- RF connectors
- Lightning Arrestors and grounding rods
Site Surveying and Installation 10%
Understand and describe the requirements to gather information prior to the site survey and do reporting after the site survey
- Gathering business requirements
- Interviewing stakeholders
- Gathering site-specific documentation including existing network characteristics
- Identifying infrastructure connectivity and power requirements
- Understanding RF coverage requirements
- Understanding application requirements Define and differentiate between the following WLAN system architectures and understand site survey concepts related to each architecture. Identify and explain best practices for access point placement and density.
- Multiple Channel Architecture (MCA)
- Single Channel Architecture (SCA)
Describe the primary purpose and methodology of manual and predictive site surveys Define the need for and the use of a manual site survey tool and differentiate between the following manual site survey types
- Active surveys
- Passive surveys
Differentiate between manual and predictive site surveys
- Advantages and disadvantages of each site survey methodology Define the need for and use of site survey software or a protocol analyzer in a manual site survey as it relates to identifying, locating, and assessing nearby WLANs
Differentiate between site survey methods for indoor and outdoor wireless service Define the need for and use of a spectrum analyzer in a site survey
- Identification and location of interference sources
- Differentiation of Wi-Fi and non-Wi-Fi interference sources
Understand industry best practices for optimal use of directional and omni-directional antennas in site surveys 
Applications, Support, and Troubleshooting 15%
Identify deployment scenarios for common WLAN network types and suggest best practices for these scenarios.
- Small Office / Home Office (SOHO)
- Extension of existing networks into remote locations 
- Building-to-building connectivity
- Public wireless hotspots
- Carpeted office, education, industrial, and healthcare
- Last-mile data delivery – Wireless ISP
- High density environments
Recognize common problems associated with wireless networks and their symptoms, and identify steps to isolate and troubleshoot the problem. Given a problem situation, interpret the symptoms and the most likely cause.
- Throughput problems
- Connectivity problems
- RF coverage or capacity problems
- Interference from Wi-Fi or non-Wi-Fi sources
- Application performance problems
- RF performance problems, such as multipath and hidden nodes 
Identify procedures to optimize wireless networks.
- Infrastructure hardware selection and placement
- Identifying, locating, and removing sources of interference
- Client load-balancing and infrastructure redundancy
- Analyzing infrastructure capacity and utilization
Security & Monitoring 10%
Identify and describe the following legacy WLAN security technologies.
- SSID Hiding
- MAC Filtering
Understand the basic operation of and implementation best practices for the following WLAN security technologies.
- WPA- and WPA2-Personal
​- WPA- and WPA-2 Enterprise
- 802.1X/EAP 
- Encryption – TKIP/CCMP
Understand the basic functions and implementation best practices for the following WLAN security technologies.
- Role Based Access Control (RBAC)
- Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
- Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems (WIPS)
- Captive Portals
- Network management and monitoring systems

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug