Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : RHIA
Exam Name : Registered Health Information Administrator (AHIMA RHIA) 2022
Vendor Name : Healthcare
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Exam : RHIA
Exam Name : Registered Health Information Administrator(R)
Questions : 180
Question Type : multiple choice
Scored : 160
Unscored : 20
Exam Time : 4 hours

Domain 1 – Data Content, Structure & Standards (Information Governance) (18-22%)
Tasks:
A. Classification Systems
A1. Code diagnosis and procedures according to established guidelines

B. Health Record Content & Documentation
B1. Ensure accuracy and integrity of health data and health record documentation (paper or electronic)
B2. Manage the contents of the legal health record (structured and unstructured)
B3. Manage the retention and destruction of the legal health record

C. Data Governance
C1. Maintain data in accordance with regulatory requirements
C2. Develop and maintain organizational policies, procedures, and guidelines for management of health information

D. Data Management & Secondary Data Sources
D1. Manage health data elements and/or data sets
D2. Assist in the maintenance of the data dictionary and data models for database design
D3. Manage and maintain databases (e.g., data migration, updates)

Domain 2 – Information Protection: Access, Disclosure, Archival, Privacy & Security (23-27%)
Tasks:
A. Health Law
A1. Maintain healthcare privacy and security training programs
A2. Enforce and monitor organizational compliance with healthcare information laws, regulations and standards (e.g., audit, report and/or inform)

B. Data Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security
B1. Design policies and implement privacy practices to safeguard Protected Health Information
B2. Design policies and implement security practices to safeguard Protected Health Information
B3. Investigate and resolve healthcare privacy and security issues/breaches

C. Release of Information
C1. Manage access, disclosure, and use of Protected Health Information to ensure confidentiality
C2. Develop policies and procedures for uses and disclosures/redisclosures of Protected Health Information

Domain 3 – Informatics, Analytics & Data Use (22-26%)
Tasks:
A. Health Information Technologies
A1. Implement and manage use of, and access to, technology applications
A2. Evaluate and recommend clinical, administrative, and specialty service applications (e.g., financial systems, electronic record, clinical coding)

B. Information Management Strategic Planning
B1. Present data for organizational use (e.g., summarize, synthesize, and condense information)

C. Analytics & Decision Support
C1. Filter and/or interpret information for the end customer
C2. Analyze and present information to organizational stakeholders
C3. Use data mining techniques to query and report from databases

D. Healthcare Statistics
D1. Calculate healthcare statistics for organizational stakeholders
D2. Critically analyze and interpret healthcare statistics for organizational stakeholders (e.g., CMI)

E. Research Methods
E1. Identify appropriate data sources for research

F. Consumer Informatics
F1. Identify and/or respond to the information needs of internal and external healthcare customers
F2. Provide support for end-user portals and personal health records

G. Health Information Exchange
G1. Apply data and functional standards to achieve interoperability of healthcare information systems
G2. Manage the health information exchange process entity-wide

H. Information Integrity and Data Quality
H1. Apply data/record storage principles and techniques associated with the medium (e.g., paper-based, hybrid, electronic)
H2. Manage master person index (e.g., patient record integration, customer/client relationship management)
H3. Manage merge process for duplicates and other errors entity-wide (e.g., validate data sources)

Domain 4 – Revenue Management (12-16%)
Tasks:
A. Revenue Cycle & Reimbursement
A1. Manage the use of clinical data required in reimbursement systems and prospective payment systems (PPS)
A2. Optimize reimbursement through management of the revenue cycle (e.g., chargemaster maintenance, DNFB, and AR days)

B. Regulatory
B1. Prepare for accreditation and licensing processes [e.g. Joint Commission, Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Medicare, state regulators]
B2. Process audit requests (e.g., RACs or other payors, chart review)
B3. Perform audits (e.g., chart review, POC)

C. Coding
C1. Manage and/or validate coding accuracy

D. Fraud Surveillance
D1. Participate in investigating incidences of medical identity theft

E. Clinical Documentation Improvement
E1. Query physicians for appropriate documentation to support reimbursement
E2. Educate and train clinical staff regarding supporting documentation requirements

Domain 5 – Leadership (12-16%)
Tasks:
A. Leadership Roles
A1. Develop, motivate, and support work teams and/or individuals (e.g., coaching, mentoring) A2. Organize and facilitate meetings
A3. Advocate for department, organization and/or profession

B. Change Management
B1. Participate in the implementation of new processes (e.g., systems, EHR, CAC)
B2. Support changes in the organization (e.g., culture changes, HIM consolidations, outsourcing)

C. Work Design & Process Improvement
C1. Establish and monitor productivity standards
C2. Analyze and design workflow processes
C3. Participate in the development and monitoring of process improvement plans

D. Human Resources Management
D1. Perform human resource management activities (e.g., recruiting staff, creating job descriptions, resolving personnel issues)

E. Training & Development
E1. Conduct training and educational activities (e.g. HIM systems, coding, medical and institutional terminology, documentation and regulatory requirements)

F. Strategic & Organizational Management
F1. Monitor industry trends and organizational needs to anticipate changes
F2. Determine resource needs by performing analyses (e.g., costbenefit, business planning)
F3. Assist with preparation of capital budget

G. Financial Management
G1. Assist in preparation and management of operating and personnel budgets
G2. Assist in the analysis and reporting on budget variances

H. Ethics
H1. Adhere to the AHIMA code of ethics

I. Project Management
I1. Utilize appropriate project management methodologies

J. Vendor/Contract Management
J1. Evaluate and manage contracts (e.g., vendor, contract personnel, maintenance)

K. Enterprise Information Management
K1. Develop and support strategic and operational plans for entity-wide health information management



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug