Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Nokia SDM-2002001030 : PDM MS (SDM_2002001030) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : SDM-2002001030
Exam Name : PDM MS (SDM_2002001030)
Vendor Name : Nokia
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SDM-2002001030 test Format | SDM-2002001030 Course Contents | SDM-2002001030 Course Outline | SDM-2002001030 test Syllabus | SDM-2002001030 test Objectives

Test Detail:
The Nokia SDM-2002001030 PDM MS (SDM_2002001030) test is designed to validate the knowledge and skills of professionals in the Nokia Service Design and Management (SDM) domain. Here is a detailed description of the exam, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The exact number of questions and time allocation for the Nokia SDM-2002001030 test can be obtained from the official Nokia test documentation. Typically, the test consists of multiple-choice questions and is completed within a specified time limit to assess the candidate's understanding of the SDM concepts and their ability to apply them in practical scenarios.

Course Outline:
The course for the Nokia SDM-2002001030 test covers various subjects related to Service Design and Management. The course outline may include the following key areas:

1. Introduction to Service Design and Management:
- Overview of service design principles and best practices.
- Understanding the role of service management in delivering customer value.
- Introduction to Nokia's Service Design and Management framework.

2. Service Design Processes and Methodologies:
- Understanding the key stages of the service design lifecycle.
- Service strategy development and alignment with business objectives.
- Service catalog design and creation.
- Service level management and SLA definition.
- Service risk test and mitigation strategies.

3. Service Operations and Continual Improvement:
- Incident and problem management processes.
- Change management and release management.
- Service monitoring and performance management.
- Continual service improvement methodologies.

4. Service Integration and Customer Experience:
- Service integration strategies and best practices.
- Customer experience management and satisfaction measurement.
- Service reporting and communication with stakeholders.
- Managing customer expectations and service quality.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the Nokia SDM-2002001030 test are to assess a candidate's proficiency in the following areas:

1. Understanding the principles and concepts of Service Design and Management.
2. Applying service design processes and methodologies.
3. Managing service operations and driving continual improvement.
4. Ensuring effective service integration and optimizing customer experience.

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus for the Nokia SDM-2002001030 test covers the subjects mentioned in the course outline. The syllabus may include questions related to service design principles, service catalog management, service level management, incident and problem management, change management, customer experience, and service reporting.

Candidates should refer to the official Nokia test documentation and study resources for accurate and up-to-date information on the test format, content, and requirements. It is recommended to allocate sufficient time for test preparation, including studying the course materials, practicing service design and management concepts, and gaining hands-on experience with Nokia SDM tools and frameworks.

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Nokia PDM Cheatsheet


Nokia just released two dumb phones like it's 1996 and I'm here for it

The year is 1996: MSNBC just launched, there's a new computer called the Sony Vaio, the inaugural Mission: Impossible movie is in theaters, Spice Girls just had their first ever Number 1 hit, Wannabe, and a virtual butler called Jeeves now lets you type your innermost questions into a search bar – provided you're allowed to unplug the house phone for long enough to get dial-up internet. 

Oh, and if you're lucky enough to own a cell phone, it's probably a Nokia that doesn't look too dissimilar to the two new models the company just released in the here and now – the Nokia 130 and 150.

These are phones for people who want to disconnect, and who want to be reminded of simpler times. I'm talking about a time when scrolling was a passive activity that meant watching and waiting for the TV dial to tick over to the number you'd keyed in on your remote on whichever teletext service you had access to. 

Look, Nokia is undoubtedly still one of the world’s most recognized phone brands – their roundup of the best Nokia phones proves it. And this isn't the first time I've been delighted to see a retro-trip handset from the company; see the 2022 Nokia 5710 XpressAudio, which is little more than a novelty burner with free true wireless earbuds squirreled into the back and a hit of added 4G. 

Opinion: Nokia's feature phones tend to ace the basics 

Nokia 150 in three different colorways, on beige background

Nokia 150's cyan and red colorways are cute, no?  (Image credit: Nokia)

So, what of the not-so-smart class of 2023? The handsets seem remarkably humble in an era of wildly expensive flagship foldable smartphones, and if you're thinking that one of these feature phones sounds suspiciously familiar, you're right – the Nokia 150 isn’t actually a new model. It was first announced in 2016 and received another glow-up in 2020. Now it’s back for 2023, with a more angular look and scant new features – if being a more environmentally conscious build and still not being a smartphone count as features. 

Nokia is being guarded about the processor, but its 1,450mAh battery should last a glorious few days – and yes, it's removable! Do you yearn for the days of whipping out a fresh black mini-disc-like battery from its little plastic wallet, taking the back off your handset, lining up the three battery contacts, squeezing the whole thing back together again and firing up the power button? Have at it. 

You also get a very basic 0.3MP rear camera (for context, the iPhone 14 Pro and iPhone 14 Pro Max sport a 48MP main snapper) and there’s no front camera. It runs on an operating system called S30+ rather than Android, but the most notable feature for me as TR's resident and often reticent audiophile is the 3.5mm headphone jack, rarely seen in smartphones these days with the exception of Sony's latest Xperia V and older Xperia 1 IV flagship smartphones. 

Nokia 130 is for 'long calls and loud audio' and I love that

Two Nokia 130 phones in lavender and gold, on white background

Then again, the Nokia 130 comes in purple or a lovely light gold (Image credit: Nokia 130)

Both models charge via the now archaic micro USB port too, so unless you've got an Ultimate Ears Wonderboom 3 Bluetooth speaker, you'll be needing a collection of cables for juicing up different things. 

Elsewhere there's an MP3 player (which takes me back to my beloved iPod Classic, but this solution requires a microSD card), voice recorder (also needs the card), FM radio receiver (wired and wireless dual mode), an onboard mic and a speaker, plus an IP52 rating – which means dust will struggle to get in, but water can. 

The Nokia 130 (pictured above) is not an awful lot different in terms of specs (although the colorways are contrasting, and here I do like the purple option for the Nokia 130), apart from two main things: first, there's no camera at all, and second, where you might expect to see a lens notch on the back of the phone, there is instead a pretty large speaker grille.

Nokia lists this only as a "big speaker" and promises "loud audio" from it, but it still piques my interest, and will doubtless appeal to users who don't care for Spotify or in fact any of the best music streaming services (no dice with this "dumb" phone, of course) but who do enjoy calls without having to hold the phone right up to their ear or like listening to the original wireless, the radio. 

Forget your Galaxy Z Fold 5 display, here's a humble 2.4-inch QVGA screen with 240 x 320 pixel resolution, and I think that same 1,450mAh battery will last even longer in the Nokia 130. 

Given the lack of smart features, you may even be tempted to make real phone calls on this thing. And because either one of these Nokia phones will only set you back around $50 / £40 / AU$75 – and could become someone's social lifeline – you love to see it. 

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Nokia 150 & Nokia 130 official with long battery life, IP rating

Nokia has quietly launched a couple of feature phones. The Finnish brand recently refreshed its lineup of inexpensive basic phones with the Nokia 150 and Nokia 130. Both of these are modernized versions of existing handsets with the same name.

The Nokia 150 first debuted in 2016. The company released another Nokia 150 in 2020. The 2023 model now brings a modern design with all the basic specs you’d expect from a feature phone. It sports a 2.4-inch QVGA display and an old-school keypad. The Nokia branding is prominent under the display while the top earpiece is huge too.

On the back, they have a speaker, a 0.3MP VGA camera, and an LED flash unit. A second Nokia branding can also be seen on the back plate, which is removable. Under it, they have a 1450mAh removable battery with a rated standby time of 30 days and a talk time of 20 hours. Nokia has included a micro-USB port for charging the battery.

Other highlights of the Nokia 150 (2023) include MicroSD card support up to 32GB, 3.5mm headphone jack, MP3 player, voice recorder, FM Radio (wired & wireless modes), and single mini-SIM support with GSM network connectivity (2G). The device has a polycarbonate with nano texture and boasts an IP52 rating for dust and water resistance. The whole package weighs 106.3 grams and measures 130.95 x 50.6 x 15.15 mm in dimension.

Nokia 150 official 2

Nokia 150 official 2

The Nokia 130, which is also the third model with the same name (the previous two came in 2014 and 2017), shares most of the specs with the Nokia 150. The only notable difference is the lack of a camera. Despite that, Nokia has included an LED flash here to serve as a torch. It has a more simplistic design and is a little thinner (14mm) too. This model also retains the IP52 rating for dust and water resistance. The company also tells us that the Nokia 130 has 4MP of internal storage and 4MB RAM.

Nokia has already listed the Nokia 150 and Nokia 130 on its official website. However, the company hasn’t revealed the prices of the new features phones, nor has it shared availability details. The official listings reveal that the former model will be available in Black, Cyan, and Red color variants, while the latter gets Dark Blue, Light Gold, and Purple shades. It’s unclear when Nokia will start selling the duo. If you’re looking to grab one of them, they should be available at an affordable price (probably around $50).

Nokia 130 official 1

Nokia 130 official 1


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug