Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ServiceNow-CSA
Exam Name : ServiceNow Certified System Administrator
Vendor Name : ServiceNow
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ServiceNow-CSA test Format | ServiceNow-CSA Course Contents | ServiceNow-CSA Course Outline | ServiceNow-CSA test Syllabus | ServiceNow-CSA test Objectives


Objectives
During this 3 day interactive training course you will perform system administration functions in your own instance; a safe sandbox. You will start by performing core configuration tasks, and work with UI Policies, Data Policies, UI Actions, Business Rules and Client Scripts, then use the Mobile Platform and activate Plugins. You will also add users, groups and roles, then manage data with Tables, the CMDB, Import Sets and Update Sets. You will work with two key Process Applications, the Knowledge Base and the Service Catalog then create Workflow activities and approvals. You will move on to configure Alerts and Notifications, view Upgrade History and Status, control System Access and Data Security, and create Baseline Performance Metrics. Finally, you will run Reports, configure SLAs, perform Instance Branding and Customization. Throughout the course, social IT elements will be integrated to demonstrate best practices and communicate with other students and training department personnel.

Module 1 Core Configuration
Objectives:
Configure Navigation, Search and UI options, manage Lists, Forms and Filters, Work with UI Policies, Data Policies, UI Actions, Business Rules and Client Scripts, Use the Mobile Platform and activate Plugins
1. Configuration Essentials Lab: Enable new UI then create Bookmarks; personalize Lists and Forms (with Challenge Component); Create and apply Filters
2. Core Configuration Lab: Create and modify UI Policies, UI Policy Actions, Data Policies and UI Actions; Create a Business Rule; Create a Client Script
3. Mobile Lab: obtain IOS Simulator (Mac) or Android Simulator (Windows) then create a new Lost Prototype Incident
4. Plugins Lab: Activate the Syntax Editor Plugin, Personalize the System Plugins List View to display the "Has Demo Data" column and the LiveFeed Document Plugin

Module 2 User Administration
Objectives:
Configure User Accounts, Groups, and Roles
1. User Administration Lab: Add Users, Add new Group Automatically Associated with New User Record, Assign Roles to a Group, Add Users to new Groups, Create and test New Assignment Rule

Module 3 Manage Data with Tables and the CMDB
Objectives:
Add new Tables, Applications and Modules and add Configuration Items (Cis) to the CMDB
1. Tables Lab: Create and Extend Tables, Add Dictionary Override
2. CMDB Lab: Add and Map CIs, Analyze Problems Using BSM Map

Module 4 Manage Data with Import Sets and Update Sets
Objectives:
Create Import Sets and Transform Maps, and create and apply Update Sets
1. Import Sets Lab: Work with Import Sets and Transform Maps
2. Update Sets Lab: Create then Retrieve an Update Set

Module 5 Process Applications
Objectives:
Work with two key ServiceNow Process Applications, Knowledge Base and Service Catalog
1. Knowledge Base Lab: Create and Attach Knowledge Base Articles, View and Edit Knowledge Navigation Add-ons
2. Service Catalog Lab: Create Service Catalog Items, Add Variables to Catalog Items, Add a Variable Set to a Catalog Item, Create a Service Catalog Order Guide

Module 6 Workflows
Objectives:
Workflow Activities, Approvals and Administration
1. Workflows Lab: Create New Workflow and Approvals for an iPhone 4S

Module 7 Core Application Administration
Objectives:
Configure Alerts and Notifications, View Upgrade History and Status, Control System Access and Data Security, and create Baseline Performance Metrics
1. Notifications Lab: Observe a Business Rule and Registry associated with a P1 Change Event, Create a Notification based upon a Business Rule, Configure and send an email notification, Create an SMS a notification
2. Upgrades Lab: Confirm Release and Upgrade Status, Edit New Build Notifications
3. Application Security Lab: Provide Application and Module Access for a specified role, Create an Access Control Rule to allow record Read Access, Create an Access Control Rule to restrict column Read Access
4. Performance Baselines Lab: Establish Baseline Statistics

Module 8 Service Administration
Objectives:
Run Reports, Configure SLAs, Perform Instance Branding and Customization, and Work with Social IT
1. Reports Lab: Run Reports and work with Gauges and Homepages
2. SLAs Lab: Define an SLA for iPhone 4S Catalog Requests
3. Customization Lab: Customize Your Instance: Change banner color, Modify instance name, Add a branding logo
4. Social IT Lab: Chat with a partner; one taking ITIL role, the other taking the System Administrator role, Configure Live Feed to Automatically Post High Priority Incidents

Module 9 Case Study
The Case Study has been divided into 8 task categories to guide to your deployment:

Task 1 : Adding Users, Groups and Roles
Task 2 : Customizing Your Instance
Task 3 : Importing Users
Task 4 : Scheduling Reports
Task 5 : Adding Knowledge Base Articles
Task 6 : Personalizing Homepages
Task 7 : Configuring Security
Task 8 : Displaying External Webpages

Industry experience with database concepts and system management.
• System administrator role and/or access to ServiceNow administrative applications and modules.
• Some knowledge of IT Help Desk processes and the incident, problem, and change workflows is also helpful.
• Three (3) to six (6) months experience using and/or maintaining a ServiceNow instance.
• General familiarity with industry terminology, acronyms, and initialisms

User Interface & Navigation (20%)
- ServiceNow Overview
- Lists and Filters
- Forms and Templates
- Branding

Collaboration (20%)
- User Administration
- Task Management
- Notifications
- Reporting

Database Administration (30%)
- Data Schema
- CMDB
- Application/Access Control
- Import Sets

< Self-Service & Process Automation (20%)
- Knowledge Management
- Service Catalog



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug