Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : VCS-413
Exam Name : Administration of Veritas eDiscovery Platform 8.2 for Administrators
Vendor Name : Veritas
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VCS-413 exam Format | VCS-413 Course Contents | VCS-413 Course Outline | VCS-413 exam Syllabus | VCS-413 exam Objectives


Exam Title : Veritas Certified Specialist (VCS) - eDiscovery
Exam ID : VCS-413
Exam Duration : 105 mins
Questions in exam : 75-85
Passing Score : 69%
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : Veritas eDiscovery Platform Administration Real Questions
VCE practice test : Veritas VCS-413 Certification VCE Practice Test

System Administration
- Explain the core features and functionality of Veritas eDiscovery Platform and communicate its benefits.
- Describe the components of the installation prerequisites, and the process for installing/upgrading and configuring Veritas eDiscovery Platform.
- Describe which components require backup, how to recover, or how to configure the Veritas eDiscovery Platform.

Legal Hold
- Given a scenario, describe the procedures for creating and managing legal hold notices, including but not limited to; immediate and scheduled delivery, reminders, escalations, Notice Library, Mail-Merge, tracking, reporting, and releasing.
- Describe custodian management, including but not limited to; the custodian portal, surveys, survey response reports, and audit reports.
- Describe legal hold notice architecture, including but not limited to; Active Directory Integration and legal hold configuration.

Identification and Collection
- Describe the Interactive Data Map functionality, including but not limited to; mapping custodians to data sources, identifying potential sources of data, creating connections to sources, searching and browsing data by group, custodian, or data type.
- Describe the integrations with Enterprise Vault and Enterprise Vault.cloud, including but not limited to; Enterprise Vault Direct Collector, Enterprise Vault Collection Filters, and preserving in Enterprise Vault.
- Identify the correct collector and filter to use, including but not limited to; Network Collector, On-site Collector, Extended SharePoint Collections, Metadata filters, Keyword filters, Collection filters, Office 365, and Collection Scheduler.
- Identify when to perform full collections, incremental collections or use collection templates and prepare data for processing with Veritas eDiscovery Platform.
- Confirm data collection and perform basic troubleshooting using Data Verification, Collection History, Microsoft Rights Management System and Environment Support and Collection Analytics.

Pre-processing, Processing, Search and Analysis
- Performing pre-processing and processing, including but not limited to; setting up and performing discovery on data, configuring pre-processing options, applying processing settings, exceptions, jobs, troubleshooting, deduplication, Load File Import, Load File Configurator, and providing various language support.
- Describe the various search features, including but not limited to; search preview, search filters, search reports, saving searches, concept search, audio search, freeform search, and Automation Rules.
- Describe the various keyword search features, including but not limited to; search syntax, transparent search, multi-keyword searches, and advanced searches.
- Performing analysis on search results, including but not limited to; discussion threads, find similar, participant analytics, term analytics, and near-duplicate identification.

Review and Production
- Applying review concepts, including but not limited to; creating and managing tag lists, creating and managing folder lists, performing bulk-tagging operations, using Near-Native viewer, performing redaction and auto-redaction, smart sampling, and review reporting.
- Performing production and export, including but not limited to; native and image-based productions, Bates stamping, integrated production folders, export and production management, slip sheets, Metadata Exports, Native-Only Exports, Production Export, and export and production scalability.
- Describe Transparent Predictive Coding, best practices, and trial workflows.

System and Case Management and Reporting
- Managing cases, including but not limited to; create new cases, case analytics, create and manage access groups, multi-case architecture, configuration, and eDiscovery Dashboard.
- Using the reporting functionality in Veritas eDiscovery Platform, including but not limited to; lifecycle reporting, audit trail reporting, and activity reporting.
- Describe system management, including but not limited to; Clearwell Utility, Clearwell Commander, system settings, Veritas eDiscovery Platform services, distributed architecture (including sub-nodes, utility nodes, cluster master, and case home) and backup and restore.
- Managing users and custodians.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug