Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 200-301
Exam Name : Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA 2023
Vendor Name : Cisco
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200-301 test Format | 200-301 Course Contents | 200-301 Course Outline | 200-301 test Syllabus | 200-301 test Objectives

200-301 CCNA
Certification: CCNA
Duration: 120 minutes

This test tests your knowledge and skills related to:

- Network fundamentals
- Network access
- IP connectivity
- IP services
- Security fundamentals
- Automation and programmability

The Cisco Certified Network Associate v1.0 (CCNA 200-301) test is a 120-minute test associated with the CCNA certification. This test tests a candidate's knowledge and skills related to network fundamentals, network access, IP connectivity, IP services, security fundamentals, and automation and programmability. The course, Implementing and Administering Cisco Solutions (CCNA), helps candidates prepare for this exam.

20% 1.0 Network Fundamentals
1.1 Explain the role and function of network components
1.1.a Routers
1.1.b L2 and L3 switches
1.1.c Next-generation firewalls and IPS
1.1.d Access points
1.1.e Controllers (Cisco DNA Center and WLC)
1.1.f Endpoints
1.1.g Servers
1.2 Describe characteristics of network topology architectures
1.2.a 2 tier
1.2.b 3 tier
1.2.c Spine-leaf
1.2.d WAN
1.2.e Small office/home office (SOHO)
1.2.f On-premises and cloud
1.3 Compare physical interface and cabling types
1.3.a Single-mode fiber, multimode fiber, copper
1.3.b Connections (Ethernet shared media and point-to-point)
1.3.c Concepts of PoE
1.4 Identify interface and cable issues (collisions, errors, mismatch duplex, and/or speed)
1.5 Compare TCP to UDP
1.6 Configure and verify IPv4 addressing and subnetting
1.7 Describe the need for private IPv4 addressing
1.8 Configure and verify IPv6 addressing and prefix
1.9 Compare IPv6 address types
1.9.a Global unicast
1.9.b Unique local
1.9.c Link local
1.9.d Anycast
1.9.e Multicast
1.9.f Modified EUI 64
1.10 Verify IP parameters for Client OS (Windows, Mac OS, Linux)
1.11 Describe wireless principles 1.11.a Nonoverlapping Wi-Fi channels 1.11.b SSID 1.11.c RF 1.11.d Encryption
1.12 Explain virtualization fundamentals (virtual machines)
1.13 Describe switching concepts
1.13.a MAC learning and aging
1.13.b Frame switching
1.13.c Frame flooding
1.13.d MAC address table
20% 2.0 Network Access
2.1 Configure and verify VLANs (normal range) spanning multiple switches
2.1.a Access ports (data and voice)
2.1.b Default VLAN
2.1.c Connectivity
2.2 Configure and verify interswitch connectivity
2.2.a Trunk ports
2.2.b 802.1Q
2.2.c Native VLAN
2.3 Configure and verify Layer 2 discovery protocols (Cisco Discovery Protocol and LLDP)
2.4 Configure and verify (Layer 2/Layer 3) EtherChannel (LACP)
2.5 Describe the need for and basic operations of Rapid PVST+ Spanning Tree Protocol and identify basic operations
2.5.a Root port, root bridge (primary/secondary), and other port names
2.5.b Port states (forwarding/blocking)
2.5.c PortFast benefits
2.6 Compare Cisco Wireless Architectures and AP modes
2.7 Describe physical infrastructure connections of WLAN components (AP, WLC, access/trunk ports, and LAG)
2.8 Describe AP and WLC management access connections (Telnet, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, console, and TACACS+/RADIUS)
2.9 Configure the components of a wireless LAN access for client connectivity using GUI only such as WLAN creation, security settings, QoS profiles, and advanced WLAN settings
25% 3.0 IP Connectivity
3.1 Interpret the components of routing table
3.1.a Routing protocol code
3.1.b Prefix
3.1.c Network mask
3.1.d Next hop
3.1.e Administrative distance
3.1.f Metric
3.1.g Gateway of last resort
3.2 Determine how a router makes a forwarding decision by default
3.2.a Longest match
3.2.b Administrative distance
3.2.c Routing protocol metric
3.3 Configure and verify IPv4 and IPv6 static routing
3.3.a Default route
3.3.b Network route
3.3.c Host route
3.3.d Floating static
3.4 Configure and verify single area OSPFv2
3.4.a Neighbor adjacencies
3.4.b Point-to-point
3.4.c Broadcast (DR/BDR selection)
3.4.d Router ID
3.5 Describe the purpose of first hop redundancy protocol
10% 4.0 IP Services
4.1 Configure and verify inside source NAT using static and pools
4.2 Configure and verify NTP operating in a client and server mode
4.3 Explain the role of DHCP and DNS within the network
4.4 Explain the function of SNMP in network operations
4.5 Describe the use of syslog features including facilities and levels
4.6 Configure and verify DHCP client and relay
4.7 Explain the forwarding per-hop behavior (PHB) for QoS such as classification, marking, queuing, congestion, policing, shaping
4.8 Configure network devices for remote access using SSH
4.9 Describe the capabilities and function of TFTP/FTP in the network
15% 5.0 Security Fundamentals
5.1 Define key security concepts (threats, vulnerabilities, exploits, and mitigation techniques)
5.2 Describe security program elements (user awareness, training, and physical access control)
5.3 Configure device access control using local passwords
5.4 Describe security password policies elements, such as management, complexity, and password alternatives (multifactor authentication, certificates, and biometrics)
5.5 Describe remote access and site-to-site VPNs
5.6 Configure and verify access control lists
5.7 Configure Layer 2 security features (DHCP snooping, dynamic ARP inspection, and port security)
5.8 Differentiate authentication, authorization, and accounting concepts
5.9 Describe wireless security protocols (WPA, WPA2, and WPA3)
5.10 Configure WLAN using WPA2 PSK using the GUI
10% 6.0 Automation and Programmability
6.1 Explain how automation impacts network management
6.2 Compare traditional networks with controller-based networking
6.3 Describe controller-based and software defined architectures (overlay, underlay, and fabric)
6.3.a Separation of control plane and data plane
6.3.b North-bound and south-bound APIs
6.4 Compare traditional campus device management with Cisco DNA Center enabled device management
6.5 Describe characteristics of REST-based APIs (CRUD, HTTP verbs, and data encoding)
6.6 Recognize the capabilities of configuration management mechanisms Puppet, Chef, and Ansible
6.7 Interpret JSON encoded data

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug