Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Medical APMLE : Podiatry and Medical ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : APMLE
Exam Name : Podiatry and Medical
Vendor Name : Medical
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APMLE test Format | APMLE Course Contents | APMLE Course Outline | APMLE test Syllabus | APMLE test Objectives


The Part I examination samples the candidates knowledge in the basic science areas of General Anatomy, including embryology, histology, genetics, and geriatrics; Lower Extremity Anatomy; Biochemistry; Physiology; Microbiology and Immunology; Pathology; and Pharmacology. A separate Candidate Information Bulletin for the Part I test is available online at killexams.com



The Part II written examination samples the candidates knowledge in the clinical areas of Medicine; Radiology; Orthopedics, Biomechanics and Sports Medicine; Anesthesia and Surgery; and Community Health, Jurisprudence, and Research. A separate Candidate Information Bulletin for the Part II written test is available online at killexams.com Performance on the Part II written examination does not impact eligibility for the Part II CSPE.



The Part II Clinical Skills Patient Encounter (Part II CSPE) assesses proficiency in podiatric clinical tasks needed to enter residency. Candidates will be expected to perform a focused physical examination including podiatric and general medicine physical test maneuvers appropriate for each patient presentation. Podiatric and general medical knowledge, verbal and written communication, and interpersonal skills will be assessed in each test form. Performance on the Part II CSPE does not impact eligibility for the Part II written examination.



The Part III examination is designed to determine whether a candidates knowledge and clinical skills are adequate for safe, unsupervised practice. The Part III examination samples the candidates clinical skills in evaluating, diagnosing, and treating patients. Examples of the application of knowledge may be measured through photographs, radiographs and case presentations. A separate Candidate Information Bulletin for the Part III test is available online at killexams.com



Part I and II

Podiatric Medical College Faculty submit questions (with accompanying references) to Prometric.

The pool of questions (items) are reviewed by a panel of practicing podiatric physicians and two podiatric medical school faculty in each content area.

The primary responsibility of the faculty is clarity and a current reference check.

The primary responsibility of the DPM members is what is the relationship between the item and the tasks performed by a DPM in practice=>

priority with regard importance in practice.

estimated difficulty-Is it easy, medium or hard=>

For Part I, the questions (items) also are reviewed by a content specialist in one of the basic sciences for accuracy and currency. This individual is a medical school faculty member.

Prometric assembles the test from approved questions according to the content specification.

Part III

Items are written and reviewed by panels of DPM practitioners who have been trained how to prepare effective test items. A second panel of DPMs reviews each form of the test before it is published.



Post Test Administration

Double Scoring Ensures Accuracy

At the examinee level, each computer-based test undergoes two independent scorings. Each test is first scored at the testing site and subsequently rescored when the data arrive back at Prometric. If scores do not match exactly, the examinees record is held until the results can be reconciled. Irregularities that may have occurred at the testing site are also noted and any examinees who may have experienced irregular testing conditions at the test site (such as hardware or software failures or power interruptions) receive a thorough review of their responses. Scores for these examinees are not released until all irregular conditions are given consideration and resolution processing rules are applied fairly to ensure equity in the test administration process.



Item Analysis

Each item is statistically analyzed to determine how many candidates answered correctly and whether the item discriminated between the high and low scoring candidates (the high scoring candidates answered correctly and the low scoring candidates did not). If the item is “flagged”, content experts review each of the flagged items for accuracy.



Deans Report

At the conclusion of the above analyses and after the scores are mailed to the candidates, each dean receives a report, which compares the performance for first time candidates at that school with the national examination data.



Score Reliability

Reliability refers to the consistency of test scores, the consistency with which candidates are classified as either passing or failing, and the degree to which test scores are free from errors of measurement. Errors of measurement result from factors not related to the test, factors such as fatigue or heightened attention, personal interests and other characteristics not related to the test. A persons score will not be perfectly consistent from one occasion to the next as a result of measurement error.



Determination of Passing Scores

The National Board and its test consultant, Prometric, use a widely-accepted criterion-referenced approach to determine passing scores known as the Angoff Method. The important feature of criterion-referenced standard setting is that it is based on an expected level of competence regardless of how many candidates in a particular group pass or fail. This is distinguished from a norm-referenced approach in which a set proportion of test takers fall above or below the passing score.



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Medical and course outline

 

Course Outline List Component

The Course Outline List component allows you to display a list of course outlines from the central Course Outlines Repository. The list can be filtered by term, course level, section and more to only show specific outlines.

Note: If a course outline is not available at www.sfu.ca/outlines, it will not appear in the Course Outline List component.

When should it be used?

Use this component when you need to display multiple related course outlines on a single page. Be aware that the course outline list can get very long, depending on the filters.

Terminology:

Current - Two options, Year and Term, can be set to current, which refers to the current registration term. The current registration term will automatically rollover to the next term approximately 10 weeks prior to its start.

In-Component Editing Options Course Outline List Tab

Title Header - Insert a title above the course outline list. (If you wish to insert a title with a different size or style of heading, use a Text component.)

Year - Filters outlines by year. If left blank, it will use the current year.

Term - Filters outlines by term. If left blank, it will use the current registration term.

Dept - Filter outlines by department. This is option is required.

Options

Click the Options toggle to reveal additional display options:

Split list - Adds a header above each course. See example 2 for a preview.

Show all sections - This option displays the outlines for all the sections, including tutorials and labs (e.g, D100, D115, D116, D118). Leaving this unchecked will display one outline for each parent section (e.g., D100, D200), regardless of how many child sections a parent may contain. This helps to reduce duplicate outlines.

CSS Class - Allows an author to provide an optional class name that will apply a style to the contents.

Filters Tab

Course Levels - Filter outlines by course level. Check each level you wish to display. If no levels are checked, the component will list all levels.

Sections - Filter outlines by sections. By default, the component will list all sections.

Columns Tab

Columns - Allows you to choose which columns to display. Please enable the “Note” column, if the “Short Note” field was filled in within the Course Outlines Application.

Examples of the Course Outline Component Example #1

This example was set up to show outlines for all 100-level Chemistry courses scheduled for Spring 2014.

Example #2

This example was set up to only show outlines for CHEM 200 level courses from the current term with the Split list option enabled.


Medical Scholars Requirements

Whether you are interested in applying to Saint Louis University’s Medical Scholars Program or have already been accepted, learn more about the majors you can pursue, requirements year-by-year and other important considerations. 

Approved Majors for Medical Scholars

If you would like to choose a major outside of these options, your decision must be approved in writing by the director of the Office of Pre-Health and Pre-Law Studies.

Requirements Year-by-Year Freshman Year
  • Attend a mandatory orientation at the beginning of the fall semester.
  • Maintain a minimum 3.65 cumulative GPA and a 3.65 math/science GPA (calculated at the end of each academic year).
  • Complete a minimum of 30 standard-letter grade credit hours each regular academic year, with at least 14 standard-letter grade credit hours each semester. Credit hours do not include courses taken pass/fail, summer school courses, credit by examination or dual and AP credit.
  • Complete General Biology I and II and General Chemistry I and II with labs.*
  • Requested exceptions to the above requirements may only be approved in writing by the Director of the Office of Pre-Health and Pre-Law Studies.
  • Sophomore Year
  • Maintain a minimum 3.65 cumulative GPA and a 3.65 math/science GPA (calculated at the end of each academic year).
  • Complete a minimum of 30 standard-letter grade credit hours each regular academic year, with at least 14 standard-letter grade credit hours each semester. Credit hours do not include courses taken pass/fail, summer school courses, credit by examination or dual and AP credit.
  • Participate in the Committee on Evaluations process in preparation for the medical school interview.
  • Complete the Medical Scholar Seminar during the fall semester.
  • Complete Organic Chemistry I and II with labs and Biochemistry I and II.*
  • Fulfill math and English requirements by the end of sophomore year (students are encouraged to satisfy these requirements during freshman year if possible).
  • Requested exceptions to the above requirements may only be approved in writing by the Director of the Office of Pre-Health and Pre-Law Studies.
  • Junior Year
  • Maintain a minimum 3.65 cumulative GPA and a 3.65 math/science GPA (calculated at the end of each academic year).
  • Complete a minimum of 28 standard-letter grade credit hours each regular academic year, with at least 14 standard-letter grade credit hours each semester. Credit hours do not include courses taken pass/fail, summer school courses, credit by examination or dual and AP credit.
  • Complete the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS), applying exclusively to Saint Louis University School of Medicine.
  • Complete Physics I and II with labs.*
  • Requested exceptions to the above requirements may only be approved in writing by the Director of the Office of Pre-Health and Pre-Law Studies.
  • Interview with SLU School of Medicine at the end of junior year.
  • Senior Year
  • Maintain a minimum 3.65 cumulative GPA and a 3.65 math/science GPA (calculated at the end of each academic year).
  • Complete a minimum of 28 standard-letter grade credit hours each regular academic year, with at least 14 standard-letter grade credit hours each semester. Credit hours do not include courses taken pass/fail, summer school courses, credit by examination or dual and AP credit.
  • Complete at least one upper-division science course (3000-level or above) each semester.
  • Requested exceptions to the above requirements may only be approved in writing by the Director of the Office of Pre-Health and Pre-Law Studies.
  • *Pre-medical course sequence may differ depending on a scholar’s major.

    Additional Requirements

    All math and science courses must be taken at Saint Louis University’s main campus. Organic chemistry and physics will be taken during the academic year unless approved by the director of the Office of Pre-Health and Pre-Law Studies.

    Medical Scholars are required to complete their core curriculum requirement in math by the end of sophomore year and must complete coursework through the Calculus I level. This requirement may be satisfied with AP credit, transfer earned prior to starting at SLU, or coursework completed at SLU. However, all Medical Scholars are required to take at least one math course at SLU by the end of the sophomore year (regardless of the AP, dual or transfer credit). The particular course will be specified by the primary advisers according to the student's academic credentials (e.g., MATH 1300, 1520, etc.).

    Medical Scholars are also required to complete their core curriculum requirement in English (ENGL 1900) by the end of sophomore year. This course may be satisfied with AP credit or transfer credit, or it may be taken at SLU.

    Advanced Placement and 1818 ACC/dual credit from high school may apply to some courses in this curriculum; however, 60 standard-letter grade semester hours must be completed in residence at Saint Louis University. AP credit and 1818 ACC/dual credit for biology, chemistry and physics are not accepted for Medical Scholars. These courses must be taken at Saint Louis University.


    Outlines of Medical Zoology: with Special Reference to Laboratory and Field Diagnosis

    THE “Outlines of Medical Zoology,” which has recently been published by Prof. Hegner and his colleagues in the Johns Hopkins University, is a convenient little book for the use of medical men in the field, and for teachers of zoology in schools and universities where the economic applications of the science are included in the curriculum, but it is too concentrated for the elementary student and not sufficiently detailed in description for those who are seriously engaged in the study or the practice of the subjects. There is, perhaps, some danger lurking in these little books that the student, who has not much time to devote to it, may imagine that he has mastered the subject by learning off the tables and diagnoses by heart. They should only be used after or associated with a course of practical work in the laboratory accompanied by some further instruction in the morphology of the animals described.


     




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug