Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : APMLE
Exam Name : Podiatry and Medical
Vendor Name : Medical
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The Part I examination samples the candidates knowledge in the basic science areas of General Anatomy, including embryology, histology, genetics, and geriatrics; Lower Extremity Anatomy; Biochemistry; Physiology; Microbiology and Immunology; Pathology; and Pharmacology. A separate Candidate Information Bulletin for the Part I test is available online at killexams.com

The Part II written examination samples the candidates knowledge in the clinical areas of Medicine; Radiology; Orthopedics, Biomechanics and Sports Medicine; Anesthesia and Surgery; and Community Health, Jurisprudence, and Research. A separate Candidate Information Bulletin for the Part II written test is available online at killexams.com Performance on the Part II written examination does not impact eligibility for the Part II CSPE.

The Part II Clinical Skills Patient Encounter (Part II CSPE) assesses proficiency in podiatric clinical tasks needed to enter residency. Candidates will be expected to perform a focused physical examination including podiatric and general medicine physical test maneuvers appropriate for each patient presentation. Podiatric and general medical knowledge, verbal and written communication, and interpersonal skills will be assessed in each test form. Performance on the Part II CSPE does not impact eligibility for the Part II written examination.

The Part III examination is designed to determine whether a candidates knowledge and clinical skills are adequate for safe, unsupervised practice. The Part III examination samples the candidates clinical skills in evaluating, diagnosing, and treating patients. Examples of the application of knowledge may be measured through photographs, radiographs and case presentations. A separate Candidate Information Bulletin for the Part III test is available online at killexams.com

Part I and II
Podiatric Medical College Faculty submit questions (with accompanying references) to Prometric.
The pool of questions (items) are reviewed by a panel of practicing podiatric physicians and two podiatric medical school faculty in each content area.
The primary responsibility of the faculty is clarity and a current reference check.
The primary responsibility of the DPM members is what is the relationship between the item and the tasks performed by a DPM in practice=>
priority with regard importance in practice.
estimated difficulty-Is it easy, medium or hard=>
For Part I, the questions (items) also are reviewed by a content specialist in one of the basic sciences for accuracy and currency. This individual is a medical school faculty member.
Prometric assembles the test from approved questions according to the content specification.
Part III
Items are written and reviewed by panels of DPM practitioners who have been trained how to prepare effective test items. A second panel of DPMs reviews each form of the test before it is published.

Post Test Administration
Double Scoring Ensures Accuracy
At the examinee level, each computer-based test undergoes two independent scorings. Each test is first scored at the testing site and subsequently rescored when the data arrive back at Prometric. If scores do not match exactly, the examinees record is held until the results can be reconciled. Irregularities that may have occurred at the testing site are also noted and any examinees who may have experienced irregular testing conditions at the test site (such as hardware or software failures or power interruptions) receive a thorough review of their responses. Scores for these examinees are not released until all irregular conditions are given consideration and resolution processing rules are applied fairly to ensure equity in the test administration process.

Item Analysis
Each item is statistically analyzed to determine how many candidates answered correctly and whether the item discriminated between the high and low scoring candidates (the high scoring candidates answered correctly and the low scoring candidates did not). If the item is “flagged”, content experts review each of the flagged items for accuracy.

Deans Report
At the conclusion of the above analyses and after the scores are mailed to the candidates, each dean receives a report, which compares the performance for first time candidates at that school with the national examination data.

Score Reliability
Reliability refers to the consistency of test scores, the consistency with which candidates are classified as either passing or failing, and the degree to which test scores are free from errors of measurement. Errors of measurement result from factors not related to the test, factors such as fatigue or heightened attention, personal interests and other characteristics not related to the test. A persons score will not be perfectly consistent from one occasion to the next as a result of measurement error.

Determination of Passing Scores
The National Board and its test consultant, Prometric, use a widely-accepted criterion-referenced approach to determine passing scores known as the Angoff Method. The important feature of criterion-referenced standard setting is that it is based on an expected level of competence regardless of how many candidates in a particular group pass or fail. This is distinguished from a norm-referenced approach in which a set proportion of test takers fall above or below the passing score.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug