Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : AZ-104
Exam Name : Microsoft Azure Administrator 2023
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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AZ-104 exam Format | AZ-104 Course Contents | AZ-104 Course Outline | AZ-104 exam Syllabus | AZ-104 exam Objectives


EXAM NUMBER : AZ-104

EXAM NAME : Microsoft Azure Administrator 2021



Candidates for this exam should have subject matter expertise implementing, managing, and
monitoring an organizations Microsoft Azure environment.
Responsibilities for this role include implementing, managing, and monitoring identity,
governance, storage, compute, and virtual networks in a cloud environment, plus provision, size,
monitor, and adjust resources, when needed.
An Azure administrator often serves as part of a larger team dedicated to implementing an
organization's cloud infrastructure.
A candidate for this exam should have at least six months of hands-on experience administering
Azure, along with a strong understanding of core Azure services, Azure workloads, security, and
governance. In addition, this role should have experience using PowerShell, Azure CLI, Azure
portal, and Azure Resource Manager templates.



Skills:

- Manage Azure identities and governance (15-20%)

- Implement and manage storage (15-20%)

- Deploy and manage Azure compute resources (20-25%)

- Configure and manage virtual networking (25-30%)

- Monitor and back up Azure resources (10-15%)



Manage Azure identities and governance (15–20%)

Manage Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) objects

 create users and groups

 manage user and group properties

 manage device settings

 perform bulk user updates

 manage guest accounts

 configure Azure AD join

 configure self-service password reset

Manage role-based access control (RBAC)

 create a custom role

 provide access to Azure resources by assigning roles at different scopes

 interpret access assignments

Manage subscriptions and governance

 configure Azure policies

 configure resource locks

 apply and manage tags on resources

 manage resource groups

 manage subscriptions

 manage costs

 configure management groups



Implement and manage storage (15–20%)

Secure storage

 configure network access to storage accounts

 create and configure storage accounts

 generate shared access signature (SAS) tokens

 manage access keys

 configure Azure AD authentication for a storage account

 configure access to Azure Files

Manage storage

 export from Azure job

 import into Azure job

 install and use Azure Storage Explorer

 copy data by using AZCopy

 implement Azure Storage replication

 configure blob object replication

Configure Azure files and Azure Blob Storage

 create an Azure file share

 create and configure Azure File Sync service

 configure Azure Blob Storage

 configure storage tiers for Azure Blob Storage

 configure blob lifecycle management



Deploy and manage Azure compute resources (20–25%)

Automate deployment of virtual machines (VMs) by using Azure Resource Manager
templates

 modify an Azure Resource Manager template

 configure a virtual hard disk (VHD) template

 deploy from a template

 save a deployment as an Azure Resource Manager template

 deploy virtual machine extensions

Configure VMs

 configure Azure Disk Encryption

 move VMs from one resource group to another

 manage VM sizes

 add data disks

 configure networking

 redeploy VMs

 configure high availability

 deploy and configure scale sets

Create and configure containers

 configure sizing and scaling for Azure Container Instances

 configure container groups for Azure Container Instances

 configure storage for Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)

 configure scaling for AKS

 configure network connections for AKS

 upgrade an AKS cluster

Create and configure Azure App Service

 create an App Service plan

 configure scaling settings in an App Service plan

 create an App Service

 secure an App Service

 configure custom domain names

 configure backup for an App Service

 configure networking settings

 configure deployment settings



Configure and manage virtual networking (25–30%)

Implement and manage virtual networking

 create and configure virtual networks, including peering

 configure private and public IP addresses

 configure user-defined network routes

 implement subnets

 configure endpoints on subnets

 configure private endpoints

 configure Azure DNS, including custom DNS settings and private or public DNS zones

Secure access to virtual networks

 create security rules

 associate a network security group (NSG) to a subnet or network interface

 evaluate effective security rules

 implement Azure Firewall

 implement Azure Bastion

Configure load balancing

 configure Azure Application Gateway

 configure an internal or public load balancer

 troubleshoot load balancing

Monitor and troubleshoot virtual networking

 monitor on-premises connectivity

 configure and use Network Performance Monitor

 use Azure Network Watcher

 troubleshoot external networking

 troubleshoot virtual network connectivity

Integrate an on-premises network with an Azure virtual network

 create and configure Azure VPN Gateway

 create and configure Azure ExpressRoute

 configure Azure Virtual WAN



Monitor and back up Azure resources (10–15%)

Monitor resources by using Azure Monitor

 configure and interpret metrics

 configure Azure Monitor logs

 query and analyze logs

 set up alerts and actions

 configure Application Insights

Implement backup and recovery

 create a Recovery Services vault

 create and configure backup policy

 perform backup and restore operations by using Azure Backup

 perform site-to-site recovery by using Azure Site Recovery

 configure and review backup reports



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Windows 10 update promo

Microsoft today has released the latest optional update for Windows 10 (KB5020030) with builds 19042.2311, 19043.2311, 19044.2311, and 19045.2311. The new update fixes several annoying bugs which include issues related to Microsoft Store update failures, printers, and DST. Additionally, it also brings a significant change in the Taskbar search.

You can find the highlights of the new KB5020030 update below:

Highlights

  • New! The search box now appears, by default, on the taskbar when the taskbar is at the top of your screen or when you turn on small taskbar button mode. You can use the search box to discover information and search your PC and the web directly from your taskbar. To configure how search appears, right-click the taskbar of your primary monitor and hover over Search. For more information, see Learn more about search.
  • It addresses some persistent update failures for the Microsoft Store.
  • It addresses an issue that affects certain printers. The print outputs are misaligned.
  • It addresses an issue that affects daylight saving time (DST) in the Republic of Fiji. It cancels DST for 2022.
  • Here are the known issues and their workarounds:

    Symptoms

    Workaround

    Devices with Windows installations created from custom offline media or custom ISO image might have Microsoft Edge Legacy removed by this update, but not automatically replaced by the new Microsoft Edge. This issue is only encountered when custom offline media or ISO images are created by slipstreaming this update into the image without having first installed the standalone servicing stack update (SSU) released March 29, 2021 or later.

    Note Devices that connect directly to Windows Update to receive updates are not affected. This includes devices using Windows Update for Business. Any device connecting to Windows Update should always receive the latest versions of the SSU and latest cumulative update (LCU) without any extra steps.

    To avoid this issue, be sure to first slipstream the SSU released March 29, 2021 or later into the custom offline media or ISO image before slipstreaming the LCU. To do this with the combined SSU and LCU packages now used for Windows 10, version 20H2 and Windows 10, version 2004, you will need to extract the SSU from the combined package. Use the following steps to extract the SSU:

  • Extract the cab from the msu via this command line (using the package for KB5000842 as an example): expand Windows10.0-KB5000842-x64.msu /f:Windows10.0-KB5000842-x64.cab

  • Extract the SSU from the previously extracted cab via this command line: expand Windows10.0-KB5000842-x64.cab /f:*

  • You will then have the SSU cab, in this example named SSU-19041.903-x64.cab. Slipstream this file into your offline image first, then the LCU.

  • If you have already encountered this issue by installing the OS using affected custom media, you can mitigate it by directly installing the new Microsoft Edge. If you need to broadly deploy the new Microsoft Edge for business, see download and deploy Microsoft Edge for business.

    After installing updates released on November 8, 2022 or later on Windows Servers with the Domain Controller role, you might have issues with Kerberos authentication. This issue might affect any Kerberos authentication in your environment. Some scenarios that might be affected:

    When this issue is encountered you might receive a Microsoft-Windows-Kerberos-Key-Distribution-Center Event ID 14 error event in the System section of Event Log on your Domain Controller with the below text. Note: affected events will have "the missing key has an ID of 1":

    While processing an AS request for target service , the account did not have a suitable key for generating a Kerberos ticket (the missing key has an ID of 1). The requested etypes : 18 3. The accounts available etypes : 23 18 17. Changing or resetting the password of will generate a proper key.

    Note This issue is not an expected part of the security hardening for Netlogon and Kerberos starting with November 2022 security update. You will still need to follow the guidance in these articles even after this issue is resolved.

    Windows devices used at home by consumers or devices that are not part of a on-premises domain are not affected by this issue. Azure Active Directory environments that are not hybrid and do not have any on premises Active Directory servers are not affected.

    We are working on a resolution and estimate a solution will be ready in the coming weeks. This known issue will be updated with more information when it is available.

    After you install this or later updates, you might be unable to reconnect to Direct Access after temporarily losing network connectivity or transitioning between Wi-Fi networks or access points.

    Note This issue should not affect other remote access solutions such as VPN (sometimes called Remote Access Server or RAS) and Always On VPN (AOVPN).

    Windows devices used at home by consumers or devices in organizations which are not using Direct Access to remotely access the organization's network resources are not affected.

    If you cannot use the resolution below, you can mitigate this issue by restarting your Windows device.

    This issue is resolved using Known Issue Rollback (KIR). Please note that it might take up to 24 hours for the resolution to propagate automatically to consumer devices and non-managed business devices. Restarting your Windows device might help the resolution apply to your device faster. For enterprise-managed devices that have installed an affected update and encountered this issue can be resolved by installing and configuring a special Group Policy. The special Group Policy can be found in Computer Configuration -> Administrative Templates -> .

    For information on deploying and configuring these special Group Policy, please see How to use Group Policy to deploy a Known Issue Rollback.

    Group Policy downloads with Group Policy name:

    Important You will need to install and configure the Group Policy for your version of Windows to resolve this issue.

    To download the update head over to Settings where you can find the option for downloading this latest Optional Update. Or you can also manually install it from the Update Catalog website here. You can view the official support article here.


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug