Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CFE
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CFE exam Format | CFE Course Contents | CFE Course Outline | CFE exam Syllabus | CFE exam Objectives

1. CFE designation requirement

To qualify for the CFE designation, you must have obtained the AFE designation or be applying for the AFE designation concurrently with the application for the CFE designation. A CFE designation will not be granted until the AFE designation is obtained. This may occur on the same day, but the AFE designation requirements must be met before the CFE can be obtained.

2. Education requirements

To qualify for the CFE designation, you must have:

Successfully completed three semester hours of a Management course from an accredited college or university or its demonstrable equivalent, and you must provide evidence of the successful completion of this course by either a certificate of completion or a college transcript.

Note that the Management courses offered by CPCU, LOMA, and CLU will satisfy this requirement. For more information about their courses in Management, visit their websites at www.aicpcu.org, www.loma.org, and www.theamericancollege.edu.

To qualify for the CFE designation, you must successfully complete the three CFE examinations administered by the Society of Financial Examiners. The three CFE exams are:

CFE1 - exam Methods and Management

CFE2 - Enterprise Risk Management

CFE3 - Reinsurance

The information about registering for these examinations is provided at http://www.sofe.org/testing/. To assist in studying for these examinations, the Society provides study guides and textbook materials. A description of these study items is also provided at http://www.sofe.org/testing/. You are welcome to take CFE exams prior to receiving the AFE designation but must receive the AFE designation prior to receiving the CFE designation.

Conditional Credit Policy - Effective January 1, 2012, a candidate for the CFE designation will be subject to the conditional credit policy as stated below:

The passing grade for each of the tests of the CFE is 66 prior to July 1, 2014; thereafter it is 74. A candidate who passes any test of the CFE will earn conditional credit for that test. This conditional credit expires 36 months after the testing date. If a candidate does not successfully pass the remaining tests within the 36 months, the test associated with the conditional credit must be retaken.

An application reflecting fulfillment of all requirements for a designation must be submitted within thirty-eight months following the month in which the applicant passed his/her first exam for that designation track.

4. Work-related experience requirements

To qualify for the CFE designation, you must be an insurance department employee, or self-employed with a contract for services directly with an insurance department, or be employed with a company that has a contract with a state insurance department and have three (3) years of continuous, responsible insurance department examination experience as a financial examiner. Note that the two years required for the AFE designation, qualify as the first two years of the requirement for the CFE, therefore, you only need to obtain one additional year.

5. Membership requirements

To qualify for the CFE designation, you must be an Accredited Member in good standing of the Society of Financial Examiners.

6. Application approval requirements

To receive the CFE designation, you must submit an application to SOFE headquarters and it must be approved first by the Membership Committee, who will then recommend it for approval by the Executive Committee of the Society. Upon approval by the Executive Committee, the designation will become effective.

Deadlines — The approval process of a properly completed designation application is typically between six to eight weeks, as follows: The completed application, with all required information and documentation must be submitted to SOFE by email, fax or mail, for arrival by the 3rd week of the month for inclusion in the next months Membership Committee review. Applicants recommended for approval by the Membership Committee are then submitted for vote by the Executive Committee, generally within 30 days of Membership Committee approval. Applications may be found on the Society's website at www.sofe.org under the link for SOFE Forms or under the Resource tab.

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Financial (CFE) techniques


Behavioral Finance Techniques Advisors Are Using in 2020

No result found, try new keyword!"Behavioral finance techniques are essential tools in an advisor's toolbox," says Van Truong, vice president of Financial Planning at Citizens Financial Group in Canton, Massachusetts. They ...

Join the Bank On Movement

The vast majority of consumers in the country have a bank account and enjoy the safety, security and benefits that come with it. But there are still some who remain outside the banking system. For those individuals, access to a simple transaction account can be a first step toward long-term financial security.

Bank On

As part of ABA’s commitment to reduce the number of unbanked people in the country, they are encouraging all banks to join the Bank On movement by offering low-cost, basic accounts that meet the Bank On initiative’s National Account Standards. By taking this step, your bank will demonstrate your commitment to financial inclusion, while also adding new customers in the process.

quotation character

The subsequent work of Bank On coalitions to increase the availability and uptake of these accounts has been, if I might say, remarkable." 

FDIC Chairman Martin J. Gruenberg (Remarks at 2023 Bank On National Conference)

See how Bank On accounts help expand access to millions of Americans and create an opportunity for banks to reach new customers.

View the Infographic quotation character

The Bank On movement began more than a decade ago. Community organizations, banks, government agencies, and researchers put their heads together to tear down a significant barrier to financial inclusion. There has been great progress in building "on-ramps" through Bank On account access and reducing the unbanked population."

Acting Controller of the Currency Michael J. Hsu (Remarks at 2023 Bank On National Conference)

How it Works

Bank On connects consumers to safe and affordable bank accounts. The Bank On national platform, led by the nonprofit Cities for Financial Empowerment Fund (CFE Fund), helps individuals navigate the marketplace and easily identify accounts that meet their needs. When an account is Bank On certified, consumers know it has features they are looking for, including low or no fees, no overdraft charges, online bill pay and other basic attributes—giving them more confidence to begin or restart their banking relationship with the right tools to manage their money.

Across the country, Bank On coalitions help match consumers with financial institutions in their community that offer the “certified” accounts. To date, 98 state or city coalitions work to connect residents to the 41,000+ financial institution branch locations in the U.S. that currently offer a Bank On-certified account.

Bank On Account Certification

With more than 300 financial institutions now offering certified accounts, the Bank On movement is accelerating. Many of these institutions already had qualifying accounts and were able to apply, at no cost, for a Bank On certification through the CFE Fund. For those banks that don’t currently offer accounts that meet every Bank On standard, the industry’s top core providers, who provide the operational backbone for many banks, have committed to simplifying the process for banks to create and offer qualifying accounts.

Help move the needle on economic inequality by joining the growing list of banks that offer Bank On certified accounts. To sign up, visit joinbankon.org/certify.

Visit Bank On ABA members offering certified accounts

About Bank On

The Bank On National Account Standards were created by national nonprofit organization the Cities for Financial Empowerment Fund—or CFE Fund—and are widely supported by consumer advocates and the financial services industry.

quotation character

People want credit. They know that until they're banked, until they actually have a credit score, that they aren't going to have access to those other things in life that they want. So, if they can be more thoughtful about building products that are for the consumer, to create a betterment for their lives, that's when it's a win-win."

Julieann Thurlow, President & CEO, memorizing Cooperative Bank (Bank On Participant)

New Bank On Training

Learn how to talk to consumers about the benefits of Bank On accounts with this new, free online course available to all banks.

View the Course More Resources
  • Bank On: Opening the Door to Opportunity – Learn how to talk to consumers about the benefits of Bank On accounts with this new, free online course available to all banks.
  • Bank On Infographic – See how Bank On accounts help expand access to millions of Americans and create an opportunity for banks to reach new customers.
  • Bank On Financial Inclusion Webinar – Whether your bank is preparing to join the Bank On movement or looking to grow its current program, watch the webinar and get marketing and data sharing tips to maximize your efforts.
  • Bank On FAQs – answers to frequently asked questions about Bank On-certified accounts.
  • Watch ABA’s Webinar Recording – Experts from ABA, the CFE fund and a participating banker discuss financial inclusion, the Bank On process and its many benefits for banks and their communities.
  • Core providers supporting Bank On – a list of core providers that have committed to make it easier for banks to create and offer Bank On certified accounts
  • Choosing a safe and affordable bank account – information for consumers new or returning to banking on selecting an account that meets their individual needs, including an introduction to Bank On-certified accounts and where to find them
  • Inclusive Banking resource page – all of ABA’s news, training and event opportunities, and policy updates to support banks’ financial inclusion efforts
  • The Bank On National Data Hub: Findings from 2020 – Each year, the St. Louis Fed invites all financial institutions with accounts certified as meeting the Bank On National Account Standards to report data to its BOND Hub.

  • Child Financial Exploitation (CFE)

    No result found, try new keyword!What is Child Financial Exploitation? Child Financial Exploitation is the term used to describe the action of using a young person’s bank account to move money obtained from illegal sources. Through ...

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug