Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt
Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.
Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.
Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.
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CQE exam Format | CQE Course Contents | CQE Course Outline | CQE exam Syllabus | CQE exam Objectives
Topics in this body of knowledge (BoK) include subtext explanations and the cognitive level at which the questions will be written. This information will provide useful guidance for both the exam Development Committee and the candidate preparing to take the exam. The subtext is not intended to limit the subject matter or be all-inclusive of that material that will be covered in the exam. It is meant to clarify the type of content that will be included on the exam. The descriptor in parentheses at the end of each entry refers to the maximum cognitive level at which the Topic will be tested. A complete description of cognitive levels is provided at the end of this document
I. Management and Leadership (18 Questions) A. Quality Philosophies and FoundationsDescribe continuous improvement tools, including lean, Six Sigma, theory of constraints, statistical process control (SPC), and total quality management, and understand how modern quality has evolved from quality control through statistical process control (SPC) to total quality management and leadership principles (including Demings 14 points). (Understand)B. The Quality Management System (QMS)1. Strategic planningIdentify and define top managements responsibility for the QMS, including establishing policies and objectives, setting organization-wide goals, and supporting quality initiatives. (Apply) 2. Deployment techniques Define, describe, and use various deployment tools in support of the QMS such as
a. Benchmarking Define the concept of benchmarking and why it may be used. (Remember)b. Stakeholder Define, describe, and use stakeholder identification and analysis. (Apply)c. Performance Define, describe, and use performance measurement tools. (Apply)d. Project management Define, describe, and use project management tools, including PERT charts, Gantt charts, critical path method (CPM), and resource allocation. (Apply) 3. Quality information system (QIS) Identify and describe the basic elements of a QIS, including who will contribute data, the kind of data to be managed, who will have access to the data, the level of flexibility for future information needs, and data analysis. (Understand)
C. ASQ Code of Ethics for Professional ConductDetermine appropriate behavior in situations requiring ethical decisions. (Evaluate)D. Leadership Principles and TechniquesAnalyze various principles and techniques for developing and organizing teams and leading quality initiatives. (Analyze)E. Facilitation Principles and Techniques1. Roles and responsibilitiesDescribe the facilitators roles and responsibilities on a team. (Understand)2. Facilitation toolsApply various tools used with teams, including brainstorming, nominal group technique, conflict resolution, and force-field analysis. (Apply)F. Communication SkillsIdentify specific communication methods that are used for delivering information and messages in a variety of situations across all levels of the organization. (Analyze)G. Customer RelationsDefine, apply, and analyze the results of customer relation tools such as quality function deployment (QFD) and customer satisfaction surveys. (Analyze)H. provider Management1. TechniquesApply various provider management techniques, including provider qualification, certification, and evaluation. (Apply)2. ImprovementAnalyze provider ratings and performance improvement results. (Analyze)3. RiskUnderstand business continuity, resiliency, and contingency planning. (Understand)
I. Barriers to Quality ImprovementIdentify barriers to quality improvement, analyze their causes and impact, and implement methods for improvement. (Analyze)II. The Quality System (16 Questions)A. Elements of the Quality System1. Basic elementsInterpret the basic elements of a quality system, including planning, control, and improvement, from product and process design through quality cost systems and audit programs. (Evaluate)2. DesignAnalyze the design and alignment of interrelated processes to the strategic plan and core processes. (Analyze)B. Documentation of the Quality System1. Document componentsIdentify and describe quality system documentation components, including quality policies and procedures to support the system. (Understand)2. Document controlEvaluate configuration management, maintenance, and document control to manage work instructions and quality records. (Evaluate)C. Quality Standards and Other GuidelinesApply national and international standards and other requirements and guidelines, including the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA), and describe key points of the ISO 9000 series of standards. (Note: Industry-specific standards will not be tested.) (Apply)
D. Quality Audits1. Types of auditsDescribe and distinguish between various types of quality audits such as product, process, management (system), registration (certification), compliance (regulatory), first, second, and third party. (Apply)2. Roles and responsibilities in auditsIdentify and define roles and responsibilities for audit participants such as audit team (leader and members), client, and auditee. (Understand)3. Audit planning and implementationDescribe and apply the stages of a quality audit, from audit planning through conducting the audit. (Apply)4. Audit reporting and follow-upApply the steps of audit reporting and follow-up, including the need to verify corrective action. (Apply)E. Cost of Quality (COQ)Identify and apply COQ concepts, including cost categorization, data collection, reporting, and interpreting results. (Analyze)F. Quality TrainingIdentify and apply key elements of a training program, including conducting a needs analysis, developing curricula and materials, and determining the programs effectiveness. (Apply)III. Product, Process, and Service Design (23 Questions)A. Classification of Quality CharacteristicsDefine, interpret, and classify quality characteristics for new and existing products, processes, and services. (Note: The classification of defects is covered in IV.B.3.) (Evaluate)
B. Design Inputs and Review1. InputsTranslate design inputs such as customer needs, regulatory requirements, and risk exam into robust design using techniques such as failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), quality function deployment (QFD), Design for X (DFX), and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS). (Analyze)2. ReviewIdentify and apply common elements of the design review process, including roles and responsibilities of participants. (Apply)C. Technical Drawings and SpecificationsInterpret specification requirements in relation to product and process characteristics and technical drawings, including characteristics such as views, title blocks, dimensioning and tolerancing, and GD&T symbols. (Evaluate)D. Verification and ValidationInterpret the results of evaluations and tests used to verify and validate the design of products, processes and services, such as installation qualification (IQ), operational qualification (OQ), and process qualification (PQ). (Evaluate)E. Reliability and Maintainability1. Predictive and preventive maintenance toolsDescribe and apply the tools and techniques used to maintain and Strengthen process and product reliability. (Apply)2. Reliability and maintainability indicesReview and analyze indices such as MTTF, MTBF, MTTR, availability, and failure rate. (Analyze)3. Reliability modelsIdentify, define, and distinguish between the basic elements of reliability models such as exponential, Weibull, and bathtub curve. (Apply)
4.Reliability/Safety/Hazard Assessment ToolsDefine, construct, and interpret the results of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA), and fault tree analysis (FTA). (Evaluate)IV. Product and Process Control (25 Questions)A. MethodsImplement product and process control methods such as control plan development, critical control point identification, and work instruction development and validation. (Analyze)B. Material Control1. Material identification, status, and traceabilityDefine and distinguish between these concepts, and describe methods for applying them in various situations. (Analyze)2. Material segregationDescribe material segregation and its importance, and evaluate appropriate methods for applying it in various situations. (Evaluate)3. Material classificationClassify product and process defects and nonconformities. (Evaluate) 4. Material review boardDescribe the purpose and function of an MRB and evaluate nonconforming product or material to make a disposition decision in various situations. (Evaluate)C. Acceptance Sampling1. Sampling conceptsInterpret the concepts of producer and consumer risk and related terms, including operating characteristic (OC) curves, acceptable quality limit (AQL), lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD), average outgoing quality (AOQ), and average outgoing quality limit (AOQL). (Analyze)2. Sampling standards and plans Identify, interpret, and apply ANSI/ASQ Z1.4 and Z1.9 standards for attributes and variables sampling. Identify and distinguish between single, double, multiple, sequential, and continuous sampling methods. Identify the characteristics of Dodge-Romig sampling tables and when they should be used. (Analyze)3. sample integrityIdentify and apply techniques for establishing and maintaining sample integrity. (Apply)D. Measurement and Test1. Measurement toolsSelect and describe appropriate uses of inspection tools such as gage blocks, calipers, micrometers, and optical comparators. (Analyze)2. Destructive and nondestructive testsIdentify when destructive and nondestructive measurement test methods should be used and apply the methods appropriately. (Apply)E. MetrologyApply metrology techniques such as calibration, traceability to calibration standards, measurement error and its sources, and control and maintenance of measurement standards and devices. (Analyze)F. Measurement System Analysis (MSA)Calculate, analyze, and interpret repeatability and reproducibility (gage R&R) studies, measurement correlation, capability, bias, linearity, precision, stability and accuracy, as well as related MSA quantitative and graphical methods. (Evaluate)
V. Continuous Improvement (27 Questions)A. Quality Control ToolsSelect, construct, apply, and interpret the following quality control tools:1. Flowcharts2. Pareto charts3. Cause and effect diagrams4. Control charts5. Check sheets6. Scatter diagrams7. Histograms (Analyze)B. Quality Management and Planning ToolsSelect, construct, apply, and interpret the following quality management and planning tools:1. Affinity diagrams and force field analysis2. Tree diagrams3. Process decision program charts (PDPC)4. Matrix diagrams5. Interrelationship digraphs6. Prioritization matrices7. Activity network diagrams (Analyze)C. Continuous Improvement MethodologiesDefine, describe, and apply the following continuous improvement methodologies:1. Total quality management (TQM)2. Kaizen3. Plan-do-check-act (PDCA)4. Six Sigma5. Theory of constraints (ToC) (Evaluate)D. Lean toolsDefine, describe, and apply the following lean tools:1. 5S2. Value stream mapping3. Kanban4. Visual control5. Waste (Muda)6. Standardized work7. Takt time8. Single minute exchange of die (SMED) (Evaluate)E. Corrective ActionIdentify, describe, and apply elements of the corrective action process, including problem identification, failure analysis, root cause analysis, problem correction, recurrence control, and verification of effectiveness. (Evaluate)F. Preventive ActionIdentify, describe, and apply various preventive action tools such as error proofing/poka-yoke and robust design and analyze their effectiveness. (Evaluate)VI. Quantitative Methods and Tools (36 Questions)A. Collecting and Summarizing Data1. Types of dataDefine, classify, and compare discrete (attributes) and continuous (variables) data. (Apply)2. Measurement scalesDefine and describe nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. (Understand)3. Data collection methods Describe various methods for collecting data, including tally or check sheets, data coding, and automatic gaging and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. (Apply)
4. Data accuracy and integrity Apply techniques that ensure data accuracy and integrity, and identify factors that can influence data accuracy such as source/resource issues, flexibility, versatility, inconsistency, inappropriate interpretation of data values, and redundancy. (Apply)5. Descriptive statisticsDescribe, calculate, and interpret measures of central tendency and dispersion (central limit theorem), and construct and interpret frequency distributions, including simple, categorical, grouped, ungrouped, and cumulative. (Evaluate)6. Graphical methods for depicting relationships Construct, apply, and interpret diagrams and charts such as stem-and-leaf plots, and box-and-whisker plots. (Note: Scatter diagrams are covered in V.A.) (Analyze)7. Graphical methods for depicting distributions Construct, apply, and interpret diagrams such as normal and non-normal probability plots.(Note: Histograms are covered in V.A.) (Analyze)B. Quantitative Concepts1. TerminologyDefine and apply quantitative terms, including population, parameter, sample, statistic, random sampling, and expected value. (Analyze)2. Drawing statistical conclusionsDistinguish between numeric and analytical studies. Assess the validity of statistical conclusions by analyzing the assumptions used and the robustness of the technique used. (Evaluate)3. Probability terms and concepts Describe concepts such as independence, mutually exclusive, multiplication rules, complementary probability, and joint occurrence of events. (Understand)C. Probability Distributions1. Continuous distributions Define and distinguish between these distributions such as normal, uniform, bivariate normal, exponential, lognormal, Weibull, chi square, Students t, and F. (Analyze)
2. Discrete distributions Define and distinguish between these distributions such as binomial, Poisson, hypergeometric, and multinomial. (Analyze)D. Statistical Decision Making1. Point estimates and confidence intervalsDefine, describe, and assess the efficiency and bias of estimators. Calculate and interpret standard error, tolerance intervals, and confidence intervals. (Evaluate)2. Hypothesis testingDefine, interpret, and apply hypothesis tests for means, variances, and proportions. Apply and interpret the concepts of significance level, power, and type I and type II errors. Define and distinguish between statistical and practical significance. (Evaluate)3. Paired-comparison testsDefine and use paired-comparison (parametric) hypothesis tests and interpret the results. (Apply)4. Goodness-of-fit tests Define chi square and other goodness-of-fit tests and understand the results. (Understand)5. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Define and use ANOVAs and interpret the results. (Analyze)6. Contingency tablesDefine and use contingency tables to evaluate statistical significance. (Apply)E. Relationships Between Variables1. Linear regressionCalculate the regression equation for simple regressions and least squares estimates. Construct and interpret hypothesis tests for regression statistics. Use linear regression models for estimation and prediction. (Analyze)2. Simple linear correlation Calculate the correlation coefficient and its confidence interval and construct and interpret a hypothesis test for correlation statistics. (Analyze)3. Time-series analysisDefine, describe, and use time- series analysis, including moving average to identify trends and seasonal or cyclical variation. (Apply)F. Statistical Process Control (SPC)1. Objectives and benefitsIdentify and explain the objectives and benefits of SPC. (Understand)2. Common and special causes Describe, identify, and distinguish between these types of causes. (Analyze)3. Selection of variableIdentify and select characteristics for monitoring by control chart. (Analyze)4. Rational subgroupingDefine and apply the principles of rational subgrouping. (Apply)5. Control chartsIdentify, select, construct, and use various control charts, including X-R, X-s, individuals and moving range (ImR or XmR), moving average and moving range (MamR), p, np, c, and u. (Analyze)6. Control chart analysisRead and interpret control charts and use rules for determining statistical control. (Evaluate)7. Pre-control chartsDefine and describe these charts and how they differ from other control charts. (Understand)8. Short-run SPCIdentify and define short-run SPC rules. (Understand)
G. Process and Performance Capability1. Process capability studies Define, describe, calculate, and use process capability studies, including identifying characteristics, specifications and tolerances, developing sampling plans for such studies, and establishing statistical control. (Analyze)2. Process performance vs. specificationsDistinguish between natural process limits and specification limits, and calculate percent defective, defects per million opportunities (DPMO), and parts per million (PPM). (Analyze)3. Process capability indices Define, select, and calculate Cp, Cpk, Cpm, and Cr, and evaluate process capability. (Evaluate)4. Process performance indices Define, select, and calculate Pp and Ppk, and evaluate process performance. (Evaluate)H. Design and Analysis of Experiments1. TerminologyDefine terms such as dependent and independent variables, factors, levels, response, treatment, error, and replication. (Understand)2. Planning and organizing experimentsIdentify the basic elements of designed experiments, including determining the experiment objective, selecting factors, responses, and measurement methods, and choosing the appropriate design. (Analyze)3. Design principlesDefine and apply the principles of power and sample size, balance, replication, order, efficiency, randomization, blocking, interaction, and confounding. (Apply)4. One-factor experiments Construct one-factor experiments such as completely randomized, randomized block, and Latin square designs, and use computational and graphical methods to analyze the significance of results. (Analyze)5. Full-factorial experiments Construct full-factorial designs and use computational and graphical methods to analyze the significance of results. (Analyze)6. Two-level fractional factorial experimentsConstruct two-level fractional factorial designs and apply computational and graphical methods to analyze the significance of results. (Analyze)VII. Risk Management (15 Questions)A. Risk Oversight1. Planning and oversight Understand identification, planning, prioritization, and oversight of risk. (Understand)2. MetricsIdentify and apply evaluation metrics. (Apply)3. Mitigation planningApply and interpret risk mitigation plan. (Evaluate)B. Risk AssessmentApply categorization methods and evaluation tools to assess risk. (Analyze)C. Risk Control1. Identification and documentation Identify and document risks, gaps, and controls. (Analyze)2. Auditing and testingApply auditing techniques and testing of controls. (Evaluate)
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ASQ Quality Free PDF
Free PDF to Word Converters for Windows PC
PDF to Word is one of the most frequently used search terms concerning PDFs; the reason is; that everybody wants to edit a PDF in a familiar format, and it is complicated to edit on a PDF. When people try to make changes in PDF files, they typically respond in two ways: they will look for a program that will allow them to edit the document directly, or they will attempt to convert the PDF to another file. There are simple online solutions if PDF editors don’t suit your needs. This article will cover the most popular and easy PDF-to-Word converters available online for free.
Here is the list of some of the best PDF to Word Converters For Windows PC. Since these are free services, you might face a limit on the PDF size. Hence it is recommended to use it for small files.
Try each to find out what works best for you, then choose one. Some tools may offer better formatting, while others may offer a larger file size.]]> 1] Adobe website ]]>
Adobe Acrobat online converter is a quick and simple tool to convert a PDF file into a Word document. Drag and drop your PDF, and your Word document should be ready for download. Acrobat quickly converts PDF files to DOCX file format while keeping the format of the original documents. You can check out their PDF to Word converter in any web browser.
To convert a PDF file into a Microsoft Word document, follow these simple steps:
Microsoft has a free PDF conversion feature that lets you save your documents in PDF format. So, you can open a PDF in Word to make the necessary edits required for your document. PDFs that are primarily text-based work best for this. Word won’t format PDFs of book chapters or documents that appear to be copies of manuscripts. Check out the following steps to edit PDF in Word.]]>
In the converted document, some details may change—for example, line breaks or page breaks.3] PDF to Doc
PDF to DOC converter enables you to save a PDF file as an editable document in Microsoft Word DOC format. It ensures better quality when compared to other tools. Both college students and professionals can easily use to tool to make edits. The following steps will guide you on uploading and converting a PDF to a Word document.
Zamzar is another converter that can easily convert images or documents. Using Zamzar, it is possible to convert PDF files to a variety of other formats: PDF to BMP (Windows bitmap), PDF to CSV (Comma Separated Values), PDF to DWG (AutoCAD Drawing Database), etc. One of the methods listed below makes it simple to convert your files:
Follow the steps below to convert the file using Zamzar:
Once your file has been converted, you can obtain it from their website. You can optionally deliver an email address in Step 3 if you prefer to get a link to your converted file.]]> 5] Small PDF
Small PDF is yet another converter that easily converts PDFs to Word docs. You can quickly convert PDF to Word with a few clicks and drag. There is no file size restriction, and using their service does not require registration. Their PDF to Word converter works well on Windows, Mac, or Linux. The free trial version is limited to daily conversions of up to two files. They also deliver importance to privacy so that all files will be deleted forever from their servers after one hour.
Follow these steps given below to convert your files into Small PDFs.
Check out the online converter.
The main advantage of converting a PDF to Word is that you can directly edit the text on Word. Here, the benefit of an online PDF to Word converter comes to play because making changes to your PDF using an online PDF editor is not practical. Once a PDF has been converted to Word, adjustments can be made quickly using Word or other equivalent applications. You can also easily convert the edited Word document to PDF by choosing PDF format.
Thus, you can visit any website mentioned in the article, and that should get the job done.How to Add a PDF to your Office file?
Insert a PDF file as an object to add it to your Word document. By doing this, the PDF effectively merges with the Word document. It implies that unless you link to the source PDF file, any changes you make to the source PDF file won’t be reflected in the embedded file in the Word document.
Open the Word document into which the PDF should be inserted. Select Insert > Object > Create from File. Find the PDF you wish to insert and click OK.What are the restrictions of any PDF to Word Converter?
As a result of things being virtually printed onto a blank piece of paper to create PDF files, maintaining the original formatting of your PDF is a very challenging issue after converting it into a Word doc. There are no guidelines on where objects are placed on the page compared to most other file formats (such as papers, presentations, etc.)—because of this, converting PDFs to other file formats is quite challenging.
The best PDF editors for 2023
The PDF file format has great support for text and video, as well as an efficient file size, making it a great format for all kinds of documents and data. It’s also excelelnt for preserving the quality and formatting of a document.
Adobe Acrobat is perhaps the most well-known PDF editor, but there are other options to consider. Having access to a PDF editor opens the possibility of editing document texts, adding images, filling out forms, and converting your PDF files to other formats. A PDF editor is a useful tool if you work with this format regularly.
Our guide to the best PDF editors will help you choose the right editor for your needs.Adobe Acrobat Pro DC The best PDF editor overall Adobe
Adobe first introduced the PDF format nearly 30 years ago, and Acrobat Pro DC is the current industry standard for editing PDF files. It’s a PDF editor that combines the hallmarks of the other programs on their list into a unified piece of software. It’s also one of the few premium programs available for both Windows and MacOS. Acrobat Pro DC boasts dedicated mobile functionality (with iOS and Android apps) and the ability to convert various file formats to PDF, including multiple web pages (HTML), Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations, and even scans or image files like PNG or JPEG.
Simply put, you can’t do much better than the premium version of Adobe Acrobat Reader for editing your PDF files. It has an array of text-editing options, and can instantly convert and save scanned documents to PDF. It even has the ability to merge multiple PDF files. Adobe’s editing options also include reordering pages, page rotation, annotations, page cropping, page removals, and being able to split PDFs into separate files.
Get Adobe Acrobat ProMicrosoft Word The most convenient PDF editor Image used with permission by copyright holder
If you use Microsoft Office, then you already have access to a versatile PDF document editor.
In the past, versions of Microsoft Word were limited to saving a document in or out of the PDF format, and that was about it. However, the more exact 2013, 2016, 2019, 2021, and Microsoft 365 versions allow you to open a PDF and then make specific edits to the piece as a Word document. When finished, you can save it as a PDF again. This is especially useful because many people are already most comfortable editing documents in the Microsoft Word format.
It’s a simple tool, and formatting doesn’t always line up correctly based on the PDF, but it’s an excellent alternative if you need to dip into a PDF fast for a bit of basic editing or text changes. Plus, Word is a straightforward editing tool for employees and students who are already familiar with Word and don’t want to learn a new program.
While there are limited ways you can use Microsoft Word for free, it is generally software that you have to pay to use, either via a subscription or a hefty one-time payment.
Try Microsoft WordPDF Architect 9 The most fully-featured PDF editor Image used with permission by copyright holder
German company Pdfforge has a unique purchase model for its PDF Architect program. It’s available as a free obtain or as part of three separate packages (Standard, Professional, and Pro+OCR). Each package includes a set of modules for the program, which dictate its editing power. The Standard package includes the Edit, Convert, and Page modules. Professional features all the modules from the Standard package and adds the Review/Comment, Secure, and Forms modules. Finally, Pro+OCR has everything from the Professional package and the OCR Advanced module. Full descriptions of each module can be found on the Pdfforge website.
Even the Pro+OCR package is available at a reasonable price, and the full suite of editing tools makes up one of the most complete, inclusive PDF editors out there. The latest version of PDF Architect is PDF Architect 9, and premium subscriptions to it include features such as editing text, the ability to convert PDFs into other file formats, support for comments/annotations, and password protection of your PDFs.
There is a (limited) free version of PDF Architect 8. It lets you convert Word, Excel, or PowerPoint documents into PDFs, rotate PDFs, or even merge PDFs and delete pages.
Get PDF Architect 9Sejda PDF Editor The best online PDF editor Image used with permission by copyright holder
Sejda is a web app designed for speedy PDF editing, and it does that very well. It’s straightforward, focusing on fast PDF signatures and only basic text editing for the files you upload. But that’s also why they like it. This online, free PDF editor lets you do all sorts of things to PDFs, including changing font formatting, adding images, filling out forms, adding or editing hyperlinks, adding form fields, making annotations, and signing PDFs. You can even sign a PDF file with three options: Drawing your signature with your mouse, typing in your name, or uploading an image of your signature.
It provides explicit instructions, making it hard to mess anything up, and it’s quick. If your boss or co-worker doesn’t really understand how to use technology or have the patience to obtain new apps — but you still need their signature on a random PDF file — this is one of the best ways to e-sign a document.
If you’re looking for an easy online PDF editor, then deliver this one a shot. The free version does come with some limitations, however: You can only upload up to 200 pages or 50 Mb and you can only do three “tasks per hour.”
Get SejdaPDFescape The best free PDF editor Image used with permission by copyright holder
PDFescape is a free web app, so it’s accessible through your favorite browser. There’s no lengthy installation process to slow down your work. Users can access the editor using any operating system, as long as they can connect to the internet. PDFescape’s service is compatible with Safari, Microsoft Edge, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Opera browsers.
You can just pull up a PDF document in the PDF viewer and start adding text and images and even white-out old content. There are handy features like zoom and rotate to see small or awkwardly angled text better, and you can use a flurry of standard tools, such as a form designer and several annotation features.
There’s also a desktop version with all of the same features as the free online version, plus desktop PDF editing, more editing features, the ability to print and scan to PDF, and you can publish PDF forms. Depending on which premium plan you select, the desktop version can cost $3 or $6 per month (when billed annually), but you can test them out with a free trial. Luckily, you won’t need an internet connection to use the premium desktop versions, and $3 to $6 a month isn’t too bad. Overall, it’s a functional, simple PDF editing tool. If you aren’t looking for anything too complicated, deliver it a try.
Get PDFescapeFoxit PDF Editor The best PDF editor for professionals screenshot
Foxit PDF Editor is a great premium option for businesses and professionals that need more editing tools. The first thing you need to know is that there are three kinds of editor products: PDF Editor Online, Foxit PDF Editor, and Foxit PDF Editor Pro. The Online version looks like it’s a free option, but it’s not — it requires you to sign up for an account, and you’ll only get a free trial, after which you’ll be prompted to sign up for a subscription. With the Online version, you can edit and add text and objects, insert and delete pages, convert from other file formats, and even password protect, sign, and redact parts of PDFs.
The standard PDF Editor version is available for Windows, MacOS, online, Android, and iOS, and it’s $79 per year. It comes with six feature sets: Edit, Review, Manage, Share, Protect, and Create. PDF Editor Pro is only available on Windows, costs $99 per year, and comes with everything in the standard version plus three more feature sets: Advanced Collaboration, Advanced Editing, and Advanced Security. Both of these options also offer free trials so you can test them out.
Get Foxit PDF EditorPDF-XChange Editor Another great free PDF editor PDF-XChange Editor/Tracker Software
PDF-XChange Editor is a free PDF editor that comes with a laundry list of features. Some of these features include editing text, adding or listening to audio comments, annotations, adding custom stamps, adding or editing hyperlinks, and the ability to move, add, or edit bookmarks. You won’t, however, be able to edit scanned documents. PDF-XChange has support for Sharepoint, Google Drive, and Microsoft Office 365, which means you can access documents via those cloud services and convert them to or from a PDF as needed by using PDF-XChange Editor.
If you need more than what the free version offers, you’ll need to upgrade to purchasing a license. If you do so, you’ll gain access to features such as Bates numbering, deleting pages, moving pages, inserting blank pages, and header and footer support. It’s also worth noting that the free version will put a watermark on the documents you edit or create with that version. Licenses start at $46 for one user with one-year maintenance.
PDF-XChange Editor is only compatible with Windows devices.
Get PDF-XChange EditorPDFelement Pro iSkySoft / iSkySoft
PDFelement Pro from iSkysoft is a PDF is a free and paid-for PDF editor with a range of impressive features. Of the paid versions, there are two main types: PDFelement and PDFelement Pro. The free version leaves any exported files with a watermark, and you’re restricted on the number of pages that can be saved or converter. That said, if you simply need to make and save edits on a PDF for just a few pages and you don’t mind a watermark, the free trial version could work for you.
If you don’t want the watermarked trial version, but you only need the software for just basic editing, you may want to consider purchasing the standard PDFelement software license that comes with the ability to do things like create and edit PDFs, convert them, add annotations and comments, reorder and delete pages, and password-protect your PDFs. This base subscription costs $80 for he year, with longer plants available at discount rates. The perpetual plan with unlimited use of PDF ELement forever, costs $130.
Wondershare PDFelement is available for both Windows and MacOS devices. The availability of certain software features will vary among these operating systems. Some features are only available in the Windows version.
Get PDFelement ProFAQ What should you look for in a PDF editor?
There are a few factors you should look for when choosing a PDF editor:
There are lots of benefits to using Microsoft Word for editing PDFs:
Want to learn more about editing PDF files? Here’s how to combine PDF files and how to convert a PDF into excel.Editors' Recommendations
Why Does a PDF File Come Out Blurry When I Make It?
G.D. Palmer is a freelance writer and illustrator living in Milwaukee, Wis. She has been producing print and Web content for various organizations since 1998 and has been freelancing full-time since 2007. Palmer holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in writing and studio art from Beloit College in Beloit, Wis.
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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?
Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.
Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyberattacken werden nur selten publiziert.
Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.
Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells
Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schadenszenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.
Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.
Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.
Nicht kriminelle Ursachen
Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.
Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.
Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.
Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.
Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hackerangriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.
Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hackerangriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.
Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:
- Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
- Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
- Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
- Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls
- Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
- Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
- Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
- Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
- Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
- Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
- Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
- Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
- Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
- Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld