Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Latest 2023 Updated Admission-Tests Graduate Record Exams Full - 2023 Syllabus
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Exam Number : GRE
Exam Name : Graduate Record Exams Full - 2023
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GRE exam Format | GRE Course Contents | GRE Course Outline | GRE exam Syllabus | GRE exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The GRE (Graduate Record Exams) is a standardized test designed to assess the readiness of students for graduate-level studies. The test consists of multiple-choice questions and constructed-response tasks in three sections: Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Analytical Writing. Here is a detailed overview of the GRE test, including the number of questions and time, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The GRE test consists of three sections, each with a different number of questions and time limits:

1. Verbal Reasoning:
- Number of Questions: Approximately 40 questions (20 per section)
- Time Limit: 30 minutes per section

2. Quantitative Reasoning:
- Number of Questions: Approximately 40 questions (20 per section)
- Time Limit: 35 minutes per section

3. Analytical Writing:
- Number of Tasks: One "Issue" task and one "Argument" task
- Time Limit: 30 minutes per task

Course Outline:
The GRE does not have a specific course outline, as it is a test that assesses a student's general knowledge and skills. However, test-takers can prepare for the exam by focusing on the following key areas:

1. Verbal Reasoning:
- reading Comprehension: Understanding and analyzing written passages.
- Text Completion: Filling in the missing words in a given text.
- Sentence Equivalence: Selecting the correct words to complete a sentence.

2. Quantitative Reasoning:
- Arithmetic: Numbers, operations, percentages, and ratios.
- Algebra: Equations, inequalities, functions, and exponents.
- Geometry: Lines, angles, triangles, circles, and polygons.
- Data Analysis: Interpreting and analyzing data from tables, graphs, and charts.

3. Analytical Writing:
- Issue Task: Analyzing and presenting arguments on a given issue.
- Argument Task: Evaluating and critiquing an argument and proposing alternative explanations or solutions.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the GRE test include:
- Assessing the test-taker's readiness for graduate-level academic work.
- Evaluating critical thinking skills, analytical reasoning, and problem-solving abilities.
- Providing graduate schools and programs with a standardized measure for admissions and scholarship decisions.

Exam Syllabus:
The GRE test covers a broad range of content areas. The syllabus includes:

1. Verbal Reasoning Section:
- reading Comprehension: Understanding and analyzing written passages from various disciplines.
- Text Completion: Filling in the missing words in a given text to maintain coherence and meaning.
- Sentence Equivalence: Selecting the correct words to complete a sentence with equal meaning.

2. Quantitative Reasoning Section:
- Arithmetic: Operations, percentages, ratios, and proportions.
- Algebra: Equations, inequalities, functions, and exponents.
- Geometry: Lines, angles, triangles, circles, and polygons.
- Data Analysis: Interpreting and analyzing data from tables, graphs, and charts.

3. Analytical Writing Section:
- Issue Task: Analyzing a given issue, presenting an argument, and supporting it with evidence and examples.
- Argument Task: Evaluating an argument, identifying logical flaws, and providing alternative explanations or solutions.

Note: The specific content and emphasis within each section may vary from test to test, but the overall structure and objectives remain consistent.

It's important to note that the GRE is periodically updated, and the test content and format may change. It is recommended to consult the official GRE website or authorized test centers for the most up-to-date information regarding the test.

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Admission-Tests 2023 questions


New Date Announced for MDCAT 2023 After Protest by Students

No result found, try new keyword!Medical and Dental Colleges Admission Test (MDCAT) 2023 has been rescheduled following protests by students. As per reports, the caretaker Prime Minister, ...

MAT 2023 - Management Aptitude Test for admission to MBA and allied programs

About MAT 2023

Management Aptitude Test (MAT) is a standardised National Level test that has been conducted by the All India Management Association (AIMA)since 1988 to help Business Schools (B-Schools) screen candidates for admission to MBA and associated programmes. In 2003, the Government of India's Ministry of Education recognized the MAT as a national-level exam. Based on the Score Cards provided to the candidates, any B-School, whether domestic or foreign, may use the MAT Score as an admission input.

The Management Aptitude Test (MAT) is administered in three modes: a computer-based test (CBT), a paper-based test (PBT), and a remote proctored internet-based test (IBT) conducted in 4 slots. The candidates must select a minimum of one and a maximum of two exam modes and will have register from the AIMA-MAT website https://mat.aima.in/.

MAT 2023 Important Dates For candidates to effectively take part in the MAT, which is offered in three different formats, they must adhere to the dates provided below:



Ending of Registration

  • PBT - 29th August 2023

  • CBT - 12th August 2023

  • IBT (I) - 30th August 2023

  • IBT (II) - 6th September 2023

  • IBT (II) - 7th September 2023

  • IBT (IV) - 13th September 2023

  • Issue of Admit Cards

  • PBT - 31st August 2023

  • CBT - 14th September 2023

  • IBT (I) - 31st August 2023

  • IBT (II) - 7th September 2023

  • IBT (II) - 8th September 2023

  • IBT (IV) - 14th September 2023

  • Exam Date

  • PBT - 3rd September 2023

  • CBT - 17th September 2023

  • IBT (I) - 2nd September 2023

  • IBT (II) - 9th September 2023

  • IBT (II) - 10th September 2023

  • IBT (IV) - 16th September 2023

  • Announcement of Result

    Last week of September 2023

     MAT 2023 Application Procedure The steps listed below must be followed by candidates in order to apply for the MAT:
  • Register

  • Candidates must register in order to create a Login ID, for which they must provide an active e-mail address and mobile number. For verification, an OTP will be given to the confirmed email address and mobile number. The candidates should then click on "Register so that a verification link can be provided to their email address. The'verify' tab must be clicked by the candidates in order to take them to the MAT dashboard where the verification procedure will be finished. A verification message and account details will be sent to the candidate's email ID after it has been completed.

  • Existing candidates should use their ID to log in and finish the registration procedure. Once logged in, candidates should go to the AIMA-MAT website and select the "Login" tab. They will then be sent their account details by email, allowing them to access the dashboard.

  • Choose Test modes

  • Upload Photo and Signature

  • Choose Management Institutes (MI)

  • Make Payment

  • Fill Personal Details, Qualification and Experiences

  • View/Download Registration form

  • MAT 2023 Eligibility Criteria

    The candidates must hold a graduate degree from a recognized university with qualifying marks. Final-year students may also apply for the test.

    MAT 2023 Syllabus

    The MAT 2023 syllabus covers syllabus such as Language Comprehension, Intelligence and Critical Reasoning, Mathematical Skills, Data Analysis and Sufficiency, and Indian and Global Environment. The candidates are required to follow these topics.  The standard of preparation demanded for the candidates usually corresponds to that of a graduate from an Indian university who has finished the 10 + 2 + 3 pattern of education. The knowledge level required to attempt the portion on Mathematical Skills, on the other hand, is that of the 10th standard as defined by the Central Board of Secondary Education.

    MAT 2023 exam Pattern

    The Management Aptitude Test (MAT) consists of three examination modes, each having the same examination layout. It is designed in an objective way to assess the capacity of candidates to pursue a Post Graduate Programme in Management (MBA/PGDM). Each of the five parts of the MAT has forty questions. The total of 200 questions will be attempted throughout the course of 150 minutes.

    MAT 2023 Results

    The Management Aptitude Test (MAT) will announce the MAT 2023 results by the last week of September 2023. The candidates are required to check the results from the AIMA website. 

    MAT 2023 Outcomes

    The candidates who attempt the MAT and succeed will be eligible to apply for postgraduate management programmes at the participating B-Schools throughout India.

    Delhi HC questions DU on conducting Law admissions via CLAT instead of CUET

    The Delhi High Court, on Thursday, August 17, questioned Delhi University (DU) over its decision to admit students to its five-year integrated law courses based on the result of the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) UG (undergraduate) 2023 instead of the Common University Entrance Test (CUET) UG 2023.

    A bench of Chief Justice Satish Chandra Sharma and Justice Sanjeev Narula said that admissions are to be done in central universities only on the basis of CUET, as decided by the Ministry of Education (MoE), under the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020. "You are not special... There is a national policy. If 18 other central universities are relying on the CUET scores for admissions, why is DU not doing the same?" the bench remarked, according to a report by The New Indian Express.

    The high court was hearing a public interest litigation (PIL) challenging the decision of DU to offer admissions to the five-year integrated law course solely on the basis of CLAT UG 2023 results. The petition sought that admissions be done through CUET UG, explaining that the exam was introduced by the MoE for admission to all UG programmes in central universities.

    Petitioner Prince Singh, a law student at Campus Law Centre in DU, claimed that the university, while issuing the impugned notification, has imposed a "wholly unreasonable and arbitrary condition" that the admission to five-year integrated law courses shall be solely based upon the CLAT UG 2023 results, which is violative of the Rights to Equality and Education under Articles 14 and  21 respectively of the Constitution.

    During the hearing, the counsel for DU submitted that the varsity had introduced the five-year integrated law course this year and if a stay is granted on the operation of the August 4 notification, the whole academic year would be wasted. He added that no admission was being done at present, and only the notification had been issued. 

    The counsel sought time to file a reply to the petition. "The university will not issue any advertisement inviting applications for the five-year law course based on CLAT till the next date of hearing," he said.

    The bench granted time for DU to file its reply and seek instructions on the matter. "It is made clear that in case no counter affidavit is filed before the next date of hearing, the matter will be heard on the question of grant of interim relief," the bench said, as per TNIE.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug