Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : NSCA-CPT
Exam Name : NSCA Certified Personal Trainer
Vendor Name : Trainers
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NSCA-CPT test Format | NSCA-CPT Course Contents | NSCA-CPT Course Outline | NSCA-CPT test Syllabus | NSCA-CPT test Objectives


Exam ID : NSCA-CPT

Exam Title : NSCA Certified Personal Trainer

Questions : 140 scored, 15 non scored

Pass Marks : 77%

Duration : 3 hours

Exam Type : multiple-choice



The NSCA-Certified Personal Trainer® (NSCA-CPT®) test is comprised of 140 scored and 15 non-scored* multiple-choice questions that tests candidate's knowledge in the following four domains:



Client Consultation/Fitness Assessment

Program Planning

Techniques of Exercise

Safety, Emergency Procedures and Legal Issues

There are 25-35 video and/or image items that assess competencies across multiple domains.

The pass rate was 77% for first-time candidates attempting the NSCA-CPT test in 2018.



Domain Percent of Exam Number of Questions

Client Consultation/Assessment 23% 32

Program Planning 32% 45

Techniques of Exercise 31% 43

Safety, Emergency Procedures and Legal Issues 14% 20

Non-Scored Questions - 15

Total 100% 155

Number of video questions (already included in the total) 25-35

Length of exam 3 hours



INTRODUCTION

About the Association

Certifications Offered

Accreditation of NSCA Certifications

Registration of NSCA Certifications

Statement of Nondiscrimination

ABOUT THE EXAMS

Job Analysis

Item Writing

Standard Setting

Exam Content Outlines

CSCS

CSPS

NSCA-CPT

TSAC-F

Exam Preparation

Example Preparation Plan Options

Plans Recommended by Background

CERTIFICATION ELIGIBILITY

Eligibility Requirements

CSCS

CSPS

NSCA-CPT

TSAC-F

Acceptable Accreditation of Colleges and Universities

Exercise Science-Related Fields

Acceptable CPR/AED Certifications

Discipline Policy and Certification Appeals

EXAM REGISTRATION PROCESS

Completing the Registration Form

Release of Information

Affirmation

Special Accommodations

Eligibility Documentation

Academic Transcripts (CSCS and CSPS only)

CPR/AED Certifications

Practical Experience (CSPS only)

Exam Fees

Scheduling an Appointment

Test Center Locations

Exam Authorization Period

Changes to Contact Information

Name Changes

Contact Information and Communications

Registration Withdrawal and Refunds

Cancelling and Rescheduling test Appointments

Late Arrival and No-Show

Late Arrival

No-Shows

Inclement Weather, Power Failure, or Emergency

EXAM DAY

Candidate ID Requirements

Security

Personal Belongings

Items Not Permitted

Permitted Items

Comfort Aids

Permitted Medicine and Medical Devices

Permitted Mobility Devices

Exam Supplies

Questions and Comments About test Content

Breaks

Leaving the test Early

Exam Misconduct

Exam Results

Exam Scoring

Exam Pass Rates

Confidentiality of Results

Cancelled Scores

Awarding of Certification

Retake Policy

90 Day Waiver

Privacy Policy

Appealing test Results



1. BASIC PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND SCIENCE OF HEALTH STATUS or CONDITION, DISORDER, or DISEASE 8 22 10 40

A. Cardiovascular: Individuals with…

1. Myocardial infarction

2. Angina

3. Hypertension

4. Peripheral vascular disease (e.g., deep vein thrombosis, peripheral artery disease)

5. Congestive heart failure

6. Valvular disorders

7. Revascularizations

8. Conduction defects or disorders (e.g., atrial fibrillation, pacemakers)

B. Pulmonary: Individuals with…

1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (e.g., emphysema, chronic bronchitis)

2. Chronic restrictive pulmonary disease (CRPD) (e.g., fibrosis, sarcoidosis)

3. Asthma

4. Pulmonary hypertension

C. Metabolic

1. Individuals with diabetes mellitus (Type 1 and 2)

2. Individuals who are overfat

3. Individuals with pre-diabetes

4. Individuals who have metabolic syndrome

5. Individuals with thyroid disorders (hypo/hyperthyroidism)

6. Individuals with end stage renal disease

D. Immunological and Hematological: Individuals with...

1. AIDS/HIV

2. Chronic fatigue syndrome

3. Fibromyalgia

4. Anemia

5. Auto-immune disorders (e.g., lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)

6. Bleeding/clotting disorders

E. Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic: Individuals with...

1. Osteoporosis and other low BMD conditions

2. Limb amputations

3. Osteoarthritis

4. Lower back conditions

5. Chronic musculoskeletal conditions (e.g., OA, osteoporosis, low back pain)

6. Frailty

7. Joint disorders (e.g., muscle, labrum, ligament, cartilage, tendons)



8. Joint replacements (e.g., shoulder, knee, hip)

9. Sarcopenia

10. Posture conditions

11. Cystic fibrosis

F. Neuromuscular: Individuals with…

1. Stroke or brain injury

2. Spinal cord disabilities

3. Multiple sclerosis

4. Cerebral palsy

5. Downs syndrome

6. Parkinsons disease

7. Epilepsy

8. Balance conditions

9. Muscular dystrophy

G. Post Rehabilitation: Individuals with…

1. Musculoskeletal disorders/conditions

2. Cardiopulmonary disorders/conditions

3. Neuromuscular disorders/conditions

H. Individuals with Cancer

I. Female Specific Conditions

1. Pregnant and postpartum

2. Female athlete triad

3. Menopausal/post-menopausal

J. Individuals with Behavioral/Psychological Disorders

1. Disordered eating patterns

2. Body image

3. Depression

4. Chemical dependency

K. Older Adults

L. Children and Adolescents

2. CLIENT CONSULTATION 6 13 0 19

A. Determine the Fitness Professionals Role in the Wellness Continuum

1. Align goals of the medical professional, client, and fitness professional

2. Maintain lines of communication with the primary healthcare provider

3. Optimize communication between the fitness professional and medical professionals

4. Verify physicians clearance to exercise



B. Perform Health Appraisal

1. Understand basic medical terminology

2. Interpret medical history (e.g., contraindications, continuity of care, goal viability)

3. Administer life-style questionnaire

4. Interpret “levels of pain” or prognosis (severity of condition; e.g., kurtzke expanded

disability status scale)

5. Interpret medical documentation

6. Document subjective client feedback and observations relevant to medical condition

7. Contact medical professionals for needed information or clarification on

medical history, restrictions, etc.

8. Identify signs and symptoms that indicate an individual should be referred

for medical care

9. Understand the roles of health professionals that prescribe exercise (e.g., physicians,physical therapists, occupational therapists, athletic trainers)

10. Perform nutritional review

C. Fitness Evaluation

1. Conduct fitness evaluation

a. vital signs (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure)

b. height and weight

c. body composition (e.g., “Bod Pod” and DXA reports)

d. girth measurements

e. muscular strength and endurance

f. speed/agility/power

g. cardiovascular endurance (e.g., submaximal VO2 max test on treadmill and bike)

h. flexibility

i. lipid profile

j. lung function

k. postural test

l. balance

m. functional test

n. evaluations specific for individuals with limited ability (e.g., 6-min walk, modified sit-and-reach from a chair, 8 lb. curl test, chair stands)

2. Prioritize need for clients with multiple diseases

3. Adjust fitness evaluation based on medical conditions and restrictions

4. Determine testing measures for the client

5. Document client progression with objective and subjective criteria



A. Develop SMART Goals

1. Manage fear and expectations

2. Increase functional capacity

3. Excellerate health risk factors (e.g., muscle wasting)

4. Excellerate confidence and self-image

5. Excellerate quality of life

B. Program Design

1. Develop individual training programs that are adapted to specific health condition (types, duration, frequency, intensity, progression, rest)

2. Develop group training programs that are adapted to specific health condition (types, duration, frequency, intensity, progression, rest)

3. Identify exercises indicated and contraindicated for clients condition

4. Identify environmental risks (e.g., MS and heat tolerance)

5. Evaluate communicable disease risk (client to fitness professional OR fitness professional to client)

6. Modify the warm-up and cool-down program to coincide with the limitations and capacities of a client

7. Modify the exercise program to coincide with the limitations and capacities of a client

8. Instruct a client on therapeutic exercise technique and equipment (including body position, speed/control of movement, movement/range of motion, breathing, and spotting/safety guidelines)

a. aquatic

b. range of motion

c. exercise with accessory equipment (e.g., chairs, walker/cane, gait belt)

d. balance/perturbation training

e. partner-assisted (support person and conduction exercises beyond the medical

fitness center/facility, or how they can help during the process of exercise)

f. home programs

9. Understand exercise-induced changes to body systems

a. neuromuscular system

b. cardiorespiratory system

c. musculoskeletal system

d. endocrine

e. psychological

C. Apply Motivational/Coaching Techniques

1. Motivational interviewing

2. Stages of change

3. Transtheoretical model

4. Behavioral economics

5. Planned behavior theory

6. Cognitive theory

7. Relapse prevention

8. Positive psychology

9. Solution-focused coaching

D. Monitor Client Outcomes

E. Recognize Need for Referral to Healthcare Professional

4. SAFETY, EMERGENCY PROCEDURES, AND LEGAL ISSUES 4 6 0 10

A. Comply with Scope of Practice Requirements

B. Practice Safety Procedures

C. Follow Emergency Procedures

D. Recognize Professional, Legal, and Ethical Responsibilities

E. Comply with HIPAA regulations



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug