Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Scrum PAL-EBM : Professional Agile Leadership - Evidence Based Management (PAL-EBM) ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Latest 2023 Updated Scrum Professional Agile Leadership - Evidence Based Management (PAL-EBM) Syllabus
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Exam Number : PAL-EBM
Exam Name : Professional Agile Leadership - Evidence Based Management (PAL-EBM)
Vendor Name : Scrum
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Question Bank : Check Questions

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PAL-EBM test Format | PAL-EBM Course Contents | PAL-EBM Course Outline | PAL-EBM test Syllabus | PAL-EBM test Objectives

Exam Specification:

- test Name: Professional Agile Leadership - Evidence Based Management (PAL-EBM)
- test Code: PAL-EBM
- test Duration: 1 hour and 30 minutes
- test Format: Multiple-choice and multiple-select questions

Course Outline:

1. Introduction to Professional Agile Leadership (PAL) and Evidence Based Management (EBM)
- Understanding the role of Agile leaders in driving organizational success
- Overview of Evidence Based Management principles and its application in Agile environments
- Introduction to key metrics and measurement techniques in EBM

2. EBM Foundations and Metrics
- Exploring the four key EBM domains: Current Value, Unrealized Value, Time to Market, and Ability to Innovate
- Understanding how to measure and track EBM metrics within an Agile organization
- Utilizing data-driven insights to make informed decisions and drive improvement

3. Aligning Goals and Objectives
- Setting clear organizational goals and objectives that align with Agile principles
- Establishing key results and performance indicators to measure progress and success
- Creating a culture of transparency, accountability, and collaboration

4. Building High-Performing Teams
- Developing and nurturing self-organizing Agile teams
- Fostering a culture of continuous learning and improvement within teams
- Empowering teams to make data-driven decisions and take ownership of their work

5. Agile Leadership Practices
- Leading by example and embodying Agile values and principles
- Removing impediments and creating an environment conducive to Agile success
- Supporting and coaching teams in adopting Agile practices

6. Agile Transformation and Change Management
- Leading organizational change towards Agile ways of working
- Identifying and addressing resistance to change
- Creating a shared vision and empowering individuals to drive change

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the principles and practices of Professional Agile Leadership.
2. Apply Evidence Based Management principles and metrics in an Agile context.
3. Align organizational goals and objectives with Agile principles.
4. Build and support high-performing Agile teams.
5. Demonstrate Agile leadership practices and behaviors.
6. Lead Agile transformation and change management efforts.

Exam Syllabus:

The test syllabus covers the following Topics (but is not limited to):

- Introduction to Professional Agile Leadership and Evidence Based Management
- EBM foundations and metrics
- Aligning goals and objectives in Agile organizations
- Building and nurturing high-performing Agile teams
- Agile leadership practices and behaviors
- Agile transformation and change management

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Scrum Management test Questions


Best Scrum Project Management Tools

After testing the top software with scrum management tools, they found monday.com to have the best range of features and customization options for scrum teams, including Agile project templates.

More so than any other competitor, monday.com can do a little bit of everything, and do it really well — whether that's setting up your project smoothly, visualizing data, managing complex workflows, or compiling and implementing post-project feedback. Plus, it has a free plan and 14-day free trial for you to test out, so you can easily decide if it's right for you without spending a cent.

Best Scrum Management Tools

At Tech.co, they put all of the products, services, and providers they write about through rigorous testing processes. Their team of researchers works in tandem with their writers to provide reviews and product ratings that are arrived at using carefully selected metrics and scoring criteria.

Just underneath this paragraph, we've created a table listing their top project management software providers and the scrum management tools they provide (don't worry — they discuss these all in detail too — just scroll on down).

Price All prices listed are per user, per month (billed annually) Scrum Management Tools on Free Plan?
  • Individual: Free
  • Basic: $8 per user
  • Standard: $10 per user
  • Pro: $16 per user
  • Enterprise: Bespoke
  • Free
  • Professional: $9.80 per user
  • Business: $24.80 per user
  • Enterprise: Bespoke
  • Pinnacle: Bespoke
  • Free
  • Deliver: $9.99 per user
  • Grow: $17.99 per user
  • Scale: Custom
  • Strong free plan
  • Unlimited access: $7 per user
  • Business: $12 per user
  • Enterprise: Bespoke
  • 15% off with code TECHCO15

  • Free Plan
  • Standard: $7.75/user/month
  • Premium: $15.25/user/month
  • Enterprise: Custom
  • A great task management system due to strong customizability and support team, with a generous free trial.

    A management tool with a complex functionality.

    Slick, simple software with a powerful core, plus a genuinely usable free tier for individuals, and great value plans for teams.

    A solid project management solution with an attractive free tier for small teams, as well as great automations that can help speed up workflows

    All-around great software, thanks to ease of use and a scalable pricing scheme.

    Why Choose Project Management Software Over Dedicated Scrum Software?

    The providers we’ve chosen to include in this article were chosen because they performed extremely well when they tested them, as well as the fact they have all the right features to facilitate projects being carried out by scrum teams. These include:

  • Agile project templates for Scrum teams to base their sprints around
  • Burndown charts in order to track project progress 
  • Resource management tools for Scrum masters to monitor resources
  • Data visualization tools to track project progress 
  • Collaboration features to avoid confusion or misunderstanding 
  • There is software out there that provides an entirely scrum-specific experience, but the downside to these kinds of programs is that they offer a more limited remit of features. And with providers like Zoho Projects available for such low prices, it’s difficult to see what advantage dedicated scrum software has.

    On top of this, because Agile methodologies (including scrum) are now so common across a variety of industries, cutting-edge project management software is now specifically designed to facilitate teams working within these frameworks.

    Plus, there might be projects in the future that you’d like to organize around a different management methodology — or you may have teams within your business that want to use different frameworks at the same time. Investing in project management software now means you'll have a one-stop shop whether you want to manage scrum teams, run projects using a waterfall framework, or simply organize a little better!


    Scrum tools on Free Plan? YesBest for? Collaboration and customization

    The best platform for customization and a great user experience


  • Highly customizable platform
  • Custom fields feature available on all plans (including the free plan)
  • Rule-based automation can be used to complete simple tasks, like archiving items
  • Cons

  • Free plan has 2-person user limit
  • Limited third party integrations
  • Higher tiers required for basic features
  • monday.com Overview

    Overall, monday.com is the best project management software we've reviewed — it has all the bells and whistles you could possibly need to manage a team utilizing a scrum framework, as well as other Agile methodologies like Waterfall.

    monday.com is great for highly communicative teams that like to collaborate and is packed full of features to make this process as smooth as possible. The customization options are more numerous than almost all its competitors offer.

    monday.com's main advantage is that there isn't really any area of project management that it struggles with or lags behind on — whether it's setting up your project or compiling post-project feedback once it is completed. A jack of all trades — and one that's easy to use too — it'll be difficult to end up disappointed with monday.com.

    monday.com Scrum Management Tools

    monday.com doesn't have a very expansive free offering — which is perhaps its only downside. However, it does have a 14-day free trial so you'll be able to take its fully-featured packages for a spin before you hand over any hard-earned cash. This will let you try out all the scrum management tools included in the software too.

    With monday.com, it's really easy to plan in sprints and the provider offers a number of Agile project templates, which illustrates how well designed it is for scrum management. monday.com's project progress tracking tools will allow you to keep track of how individual team members are getting on with their project duties, monitor your product backlog, and focus on Kaizen (continuous improvement), which is one of the key principles of scrum — something progress data is essential for.

    Quite importantly, monday.com also facilitates customer collaboration and feedback and has a read-only feature that project stakeholders could easily use to view your project. You'll also have the ability to report and track bugs in the product, which is a particularly useful feature for software development teams for which Agile methodologies were originally designed.

    monday.com Pricing

    monday.com has a limited plan that won't cost you anything. You'll be able to plan a perfectly good project with it (there are Kanban boards, widget builders, custom fields, and more) but there's a maximum of two users allowed, which makes it unsuitable for most scrum teams working on software or other projects. You'll also be able to access agile project templates on the free plan.

    monday.com's Basic Plan is available for $9/user/month (billed annually). This plan doesn't set any user limits, so the collaboration tools really come into a world of their own and are incredibly useful if you're a highly communicative scrum team that likes to regularly update each other on project progress. You'll also get 10 times the storage you'll have available on the free plan (500MB) if you go for the Basic Plan (5GB).

    Next up is the Standard Plan, available for ($12/user/month, billed annually) Included is absolutely everything you'll get on the Basic Plan, but with some nice extra add-ons. Guest Access, for instance, will allow you to bring in other people who aren't necessarily part of the core team but have a stake in the project nonetheless. This is the first plan Gantt charts are available on, so if you want software with Gantt charts for your scrum team, then this is the plan to go for. There's also the Pro plan ($20 user/month, billed annually), which has resource management tools, features you can use to manage budgets, and a custom chart builder.

    monday.com does provide Enterprise Plans as an option for large businesses with hundreds or even thousands of employees, with enlarged storage space and onboarding assistance. Apart from that, it's much the same as the Pro Plan.


    Scrum tools on Free Plan? YesBest for? Project templates & Scrum board

    The best project management software for complex task management


  • No-nonsense, robust feature catalog
  • Lots of customizability
  • Strong task management and data tools
  • Cons

  • Not entirely easy to use
  • Difficult to use automation builder
  • Not the best for collaboration
  • Wrike Overview

    Wrike is one of the project management programs in this article that advertises itself as a specifically Agile project management program — so it has dedicated features you'll find useful if you're working within or leading a scrum team.

    Wrike is packed full of useful task management features, including Gantt Charts and Kanban boards, as well as a useful spreadsheet-type view that simplifies the process of making changes to projects. This is particularly effective in the context of task reallocation because it cuts out a lot of menu diving that other competitors often require.

    Wrike Scrum Management Tools

    Just like monday.com, Wrike has Agile project templates available on its free plan, as well as all of its paid plans (bar the marketing teams plans), including one of the best scrum boards available in the project management space. With 400+ tools to integrate with too, you'll save time during sprints.

    There's also a variety of task management tools to use to organize your project, and custom charts and widgets to display data and track the progress of the current sprint. Wrike has a good number of preset options available for you to use instead if you prefer (and this is slightly easier).

    On Wrike's paid plans, you'll get access to resource management features that can help you understand what and when you should assign things based on the availability and skills of each team member.

    The mixture of guest access is available on all plans and collaboration features such as dashboards and automatic status reports will ensure project stakeholders are always kept in the loop. This is also useful for scrum masters who like to have the most updated project progress info readily available for all the team.

    Wrike Pricing

    First off, Wrike has two plans targeted at professional sales and marketing teams respectively, but as these do not include Agile project templates. we'll leave them alone for now. Both plans will require you to contact Wrike for a pricing quote.

    Wrike has a free plan that doesn't set any project or user limits, which is quite unusual (in a good way) — and the storage space (2GB) is the same as the Professional Plan, Wrike's cheapest paid plan. However, the free plan doesn't offer key features such as a Gantt chart and task dependencies (which let you link tasks together so one can't be started before another is finished).

    The Professional Plan ($9.80 user/month) has both of these, as well as dashboards, custom widgets, and preset widgets. The Business Plan ($24.80 user/month), on the other hand, offers custom fields and custom workflows, lets you imprint your own brand on the workspace, and has other useful features including time-tracking, timesheets, user groups and permissions, file and video proofing.

    There are also Enterprise and Pinnacle packages that are geared towards very large businesses, but both of these plans will require you to contact Wrike. They have increased storage, two-factor authentication options, and the capacity to create more automations (1,000 and 1,500 per user/month respectively) than any of Wrike's other plans.


    Scrum Tools on Free Plan? YesBest for? Preset Charts for visualizing data

    The best project management software for team collaboration


  • A whole lot of communication options
  • Kanban-style boards and Gantt charts available
  • Affordable pricing and solid free option
  • Cons

  • Limited built-in integrations
  • Data visualization isn't the easiest
  • Teamwork Overview

    If being able to get help with troubleshooting is important to you, Teamwork is a fantastic option as it has live chat support available on all its plans, as well as the ability to phone or email Teamwork — something providers like monday.com and ClickUp don't provide.

    Strangely, Teamwork didn't previously provide the capacity to create automation — but now, it's available on all its plans, including the free plan. All in all, Teamwork's free plan is pretty good compared to other free offerings from other project management software providers.

    Teamwork Scrum Management Tools

    Teamwork, like monday.com & ClickUp, has scrum tools available. There are, for instance, Agile project templates allowed on every plan that Teamwork offers. There are dedicated templates for different scrum teams too, such as event planning templates, software implementation templates, and product launch templates, which other providers on this list don't offer.

    There are also resource management features that Scrum teams will find handy when managing a product backlog (available on free plan but limited), although these are limited on Teamwork's Free and Deliver plans. There's also Time tracking available on all plans, something Wrike doesn't offer on its free or first paid plan.

    Teamwork has excellent collaboration features, but it'll definitely lose marks from Scrum teams for not having a great mechanism for compiling post-project feedback. As you can tell, however, it does have other features Scrum teams will like, such as burndown charts.

    Teamwork Pricing

    Although Teamwork has a free plan, it's quite limited. There's a maximum project limit of just two, a user limit of five, and a storage capacity of just 100MB. However, if you're only completing one project with a small team — and you don't need access to things like a team messenger app and billing & invoicing features, it represents a strong option.

    Teamwork also offers four paid plans — Starter Deliver, Grow, and Scale. the Starter plan ($5.99 per user, per month) will allow you to create 10 projects and has an automation limit of 500 actions per month. The storage is ramped up to 50GB as well, and there are more customer support options, including phone support.

    Deliver ($9.99 per user, per month) has a project limit of 300 and there's no limit to how many users you can have working on the same project. You'll have 100GB of storage to play with and a Guest access function (so stakeholders will be able to view the project). The Grow Plan ($17.99 per user, per month) offers burndown charts — one of the key components of the methodologies like Scrum — as well as integration with Hubspot CRM and budget management features.

    Scale is Teamwork's final plan, and you'll need to contact them for a quote on prices (much like Wrike and monday.com's enterprise plans). This plan sets no limit to how many projects you can make (the Gow package allows up to 600) and is only really appropriate for extremely large businesses that will be running multiple projects all at the same time. 


    Scrum tools on Free Plan? YesBest for? Fully featured Free Plan

    Best overall project management software/Work OS


  • Genuinely impressive free plan
  • 15+ ways to view project progress and data
  • Instant messenger for communicating
  • Cheaper than monday.com & Smartsheet
  • 24/7 live support on all plans
  • Agile project management features
  • Cons

  • Customizability can be overwhelming to new users
  • Not great at compiling project feedback
  • Clunky automation builder
  • Limitations on some free plan features
  • ClickUp Overview

    ClickUp is a solid project management software choice if you're looking for a provider that has a wide variety of features that can accommodate scrum teams. Although there's a five-project limit on ClickUp's free plan – it's still one of the best free plans on offer for scrum management.

    ClickUp does limit how many times you can ‘use' certain features, but these are often features that aren't included on other free plans. monday.com doesn't offer resource management features on its free plan, whereas ClickUp does (but you can only use it 100 times). The same can be said or Wrike's free plan and project dashboards, which are available with ClickUp and you won't have to pay anything.

    However, ClickUp's Unlimited plan – which removes those few limits placed on features on the free plan – is just $7 per user, per month so undercuts most other paid project management software, including all of monday.com's paid plans.

    Another big plus in ClickUp's favor is minimal menu-diving. As project management software goes, setting up is pretty speedy — so if you want your scrum team off and flying as quickly as possible, ClickUp's a good shout.  ClickUp unfortunately doesn't have any budget management features or feasible workarounds, whereas other providers like Teamwork do offer these features (albeit on the most expensive plans).

    ClickUp Scrum Management Tools

    ClickUp has all the contemporary scrum management tools you'll need to properly organize and track the progress of your scrum team. For instance, Agile project templates will mean you won't have to shoehorn your project framework into a non-Agile template.

    ClickUp has a list of additional features you can ‘add' to your project management space called Clickapps. One of these is a Clickapp called Sprints, which is available for obtain in all places and will allow you to create springs as Lists to track the progress of your production cycle. Additionally, Sprint Automations and Sprint Dashboard Widgets are available on the Business Plan and upwards.

    ClickUp does lose marks in the context of scrum management for having loads of useful features on its free plan, but no burndown charts are available — You'll have to go for one of ClickUp's paid plans if you'd like to track project progress like a true scrum master.

    ClickUp Pricing

    ClickUp's Free plan offers round-the-clock customer support, although as was mentioned above, this comes with some limitations on features like Gantt Charts and Dashboards. The Unlimited Plan ($7 per user, per month)  is the initial paid plan that has no ceiling on the amount of time you can use certain features (as well as those handy burndown charts that aren't listed on the free plan).

    ClickUp's pricier offerings include the Business Plan ($12 per user, per month), which has dashboard functionality you don't get on the Unlimited plan plus the increased capacity to create automations (10,000 compared to 1,000) on the Unlimited plan. None of ClickUp's plans have any storage limits so the typical increase here you may find with others isn't present.

    The Enterprise will only really suit the largest of businesses — it's effectively the Business Plus plan but with additional onboarding assistance so you won't run into any issues whilst setting up.

    Zoho Projects/Sprints

    Scrum tools on Free Plan? NoBest for? Value for money

    A solid project management solution with basic free option


  • Free trial
  • Easy-to-use interface for everyone
  • Team instant messenger for collabroation
  • Cons

  • Free plan has no preset or custom project templates
  • Teams of more than 3 will have to pay
  • Guest access exclusive to high tiers and costs money
  • Zoho Overview

    Zoho's suite of business software is an excellent collection of programs to become acquainted with because they've got one for almost everything. There's a Zoho service for CRM, invoices, email,  recruitment software, and much, much more.

    Zoho Projects is usually the program we'd recommend for project management, but Zoho now has a dedicated scrum team management platform called Zoho Sprints — and you can't say many other competitors have dedicated software for a specific project management methodology.

    Zoho Projects will be best suited to businesses that want to deploy waterfall methodologies or just want a general organizing program for their projects. Zoho sprints, on the other hand, would be more suited to scrum teams because it's built for the short, iterative bursts of work that scrum teams perform.

    Zoho Scrum Management Tools

    Although Zoho Projects can't easily be used to facilitate the Scrum framework, it's got a lot of additional features that are helpful for managing projects of all kinds. It's got two really useful automation builders and a good range of collaboration features, as well as a dedicated budgeting feature that other providers do not offer.

    Zoho Sprints has basically everything you need for managing a scrum team. This includes backlog management, release management, scrum board, Work in Progress (WIP) limits, Agile reports, features that facilitate scrum meetings, a project and sprint dashboard, client and vendor portal, custom roles and profiles, and various other useful features.

    Zoho Pricing Zoho Projects

    Zoho Projects has a great free plan — and a number of useful collaboration features that aren't hard to get to grips with. However, as with most free plans, it is quite limited — in the sense that you won't be able to work on a project with any more than three people.

    The Premium package ($5 per user, per month) ups the user limit to 50, so this will be suitable for most teams. Guest access is available on this plan (but it will cost you extra per guest) so stakeholders and other parties involved can view the project progress. The Enterprise package ($10 per user, per month) is the final Zoho Projects plan and offers much the same as the Premium package but with no user limit and custom fields.

    Zoho Sprints

    Zoho Sprints is $5 per user per month for any company looking to purchase up to 100 seats. 101-300 users will bring that price per user down to $4.17, whereas 301-400 will bring it down to just $3.34. For larger businesses of 401-500 employees, it drops to just $2.50 each. Companies with more than 500 employees that need access to Zoho's Sprint software will have to contact Zoho directly for a customized quote.


    Scrum tools on Free Plan? YesBest for? Large business & enterprises

    A popular tool for managing software development projects


  • Large range of customer support
  • Lots of helpful integrations
  • Scalable pricing structure - the more users you have, the more you save
  • Cons

  • Missing more advanced task management features
  • Integrations can be confusing
  • Not the best for collaborating
  • Jira Overview

    Jira is a software program created by Atlassian, and there are few companies that understand Agile methods of managing workflows more than they do. To take one example, ‘tasks' are called ‘issues' — a nod to how Jira can — and is often — used for bug tracking.

    Teams deploying the scrum framework will be right at home here, but Jira can also be applied to lots of other different types of teams, since it's quite an intuitive, flexible piece of software that doesn't exactly take long to use and subsequently master.

    Although Jira doesn't necessarily excel in specific areas, it's more of an all-rounder that is particularly well suited to scrum teams. it'll be ideal for large businesses with a large number of ‘tasks' (or issues) to complete.

    Jira Scrum Management

    Jira was built with bug tracking in mind, so you can already see how useful it would be to a software development team working in sprints to produce updates. Once you create a Jira account, you'll be asked to select a template from the library — and there is a Scrum template located here for you to use. You can also choose a kanban board at this stage if you're deploying Scrumban over Kanban.

    You can then create sprints in Jira, organize a sprint planning meeting, and set your scrum team off to do their work. Jira has a handy left-hand menu with sections for active sprints, backlog, reports, releases, and a scrum board.

    One of Jira's big strengths in the context of Scrum is its Agile Coach page (on the Atlassian website) — it'll take you through every single basic and advanced aspect of scrums, from the first sprint planning meeting to using epics (Jira's version of what is called milestones in other project management software) in your backlog.

    Jira Pricing

    Jira has a pretty stellar free with useful charts and Widgets, however,  you've only got 2GB of storage to work with — although project limits are absent (unlike Zoho Projects). Jira's Standard plan doesn't have a whole load more to sing and dance about. However, it has much, much more storage — over 100 times as much storage, in fact — this is ideal if you're planning to upload a significant number of files and documents relating to the development of products or software.

    Jira's premium plan unlocks resource management tools for you, which is great for managing the product backlog. This plan also allows you to create a lot of automations — 1,000 actions per user per month, to be exact. The Enterprise plan, on the other hand, has slightly better support options, including live chat and the ability to phone Atlassian for help. There are no limits set on storage or projects on this plan,

    Struggling to Juggle Tasks and Meet Deadlines?

    Project Management Software can Help

    How Can Scrum Help My Business?

    There are a variety of different ways organizing your team around scrum can help you save both time and subsequently money by improving efficiency and getting jobs done faster. It's an Agile framework, which effectively means it's designed to boost production without losing quality.

    The whole point of the scrum methodology is to break tasks up into smaller iterations and enforce short time periods (called sprints) within which to complete them. The time-boxing element of scrum ensures maximum focus is given to a single task, and iterative planning means it is completed and rolled out before the next one starts.

    As tasks are ordered by how much value they will bring to clients/customers/users, this ensures the most important aspects of a given project are prioritized. The result? Time is used as efficiently as it can be, and monetary investments are used to create maximum value immediately.

    How They Tested the Best Scrum Management Software

    We take their impartial research and analysis seriously, so you can have complete confidence that we're giving you the clearest, most useful recommendations.

    After conducting an initial exploration to identify the most relevant, popular, and established tools in the market, they put them through their paces with hands-on testing to see their real strengths and weaknesses. In this case, they put 14 project management systems to the test across 51 areas of investigation.

    Based on years of market and user needs research, we've established a project management testing methodology that scores each product in five main categories and nine subcategories.

    Our main testing categories for Project Management systems are:

    Usability — They assess a platform's user experience when completing basic project management tasks. They test how each project management tool fares when it comes to common tasks, such as resource and budget management, and get a feel for how easy it is to set up a project by navigating the various parts of the user interface.

    Pricing — Affordability and value are essential factors to understanding whether you should invest in any software. They look at the various plans and base costs for each project management platform and dissect exactly what is offered at each level. For example, does a plan place certain limits on user accounts, features, projects, or other aspects of the software? Providers offering lots of features for lower costs will have better pricing scores than those that lock them away on higher-tier plans.

    Customer Support — Because life isn't all smooth sailing, they assess the ways you can contact your project management software provider if something goes wrong. Providers offering 24/7 live support, as well as phone-based support and onboarding assistance, get the best scores. However, points are also awarded for useful knowledge bases that prove helpful for DIY troubleshooting.

    Features — They assess the full feature set that each product provides, including 4 key subcategories of investigation which are:

  • Task Management: Providers are awarded points for including features that are helpful for viewing task progress, like Gantt charts and Kanban boards, as well as features like sub-tasks and custom fields that allow for better intra-task organization. Generally, the more functional task management features are provided, the more complex tasks a project management tool can handle.
  • Project & Workflow Creation: Providers are awarded points for including features that help users streamline workflows, such as automation builders. They assess the quality and quantity of preset project templates, as well as the capacity to create custom project templates.
  • Data Visualization: Providers are awarded points for including data display options, such as charts and report widgets, as well as a dashboard to put them all on. Providers that offer more options on cheaper plans, as well as the capacity for customization, score more highly.
  • Collaboration: Providers are awarded points based on the range and usability of their collaboration tools. Some providers offer team instant messengers for seamless communication, while the highest-quality solutions on the market now include online whiteboards for virtual brainstorms.
  • Customer Score — Finally, they assess customer review scores to reflect the satisfaction of current users of each project management tool. An average rating is arrived at by combining users' exams from a variety of sources.

    When it comes to calculating a product's final score, not all testing areas are weighted evenly, as they know some aspects matter more to their readers than others. For example, certain features are fundamental to a product's usability, while others are "nice to have." After hundreds of hours of testing, their process is complete, and the results should ensure you can find the best solution for your needs.

    At Tech.co, they have a number of full time in-house researchers, who re-run this testing process regularly, to ensure their results remain reflective of the present day.

    Learn more about their research.

    Verdict: monday.com is the best scrum management tool Overall, monday.com is the best scrum management tool they tested. It's got precisely the kind of collaboration tools you need to promote team cohesion and its more customizable than many of the other providers on this list, whilst still providing everything you need to run a scrum. If you're a scrum master looking for the perfect software to pair with your new scrum-based project, you certainly won't be disappointed with monday.com. What Tools Does a Scrum Master Use? Scrum masters are in charge of the scrum — so they're also in charge of the tools being used. Scrum masters will usually update burndown charts and create velocity charts as well as Agile project templates, which is usually done inside project management software that can facilitate the running of a scrum, like monday.com. What are Three Tools of Scrum? In Scrum teams, there are three roles — scrum master, product owner, and team member. There are also three artifacts — product backlog, sprint backlog, and a potentially releasable product increment. There are more than three scrum tools (burndown charts, scrum boards, velocity charts, etc.) however, but they're all included inside project management software for scrum management like Wrike or Jira. Is scrum a project management tool? Sort of — it's probably best described as a framework, and in that sense, is a ‘tool' you can use that will help you manage a project. Scrum teams split all their work up into iterations, and create short, sharp sprints with the goal of creating maximum value in the shortest amount of time. It was initially used in software development but is now applied across a whole range of sectors and industries.

    Best Project Management Certifications

    Project management certifications have claimed a place in every top IT certification list for years. That’s because project managers are important to IT operations of all kinds. Whether you are interested in becoming an IT project manager or just want to add project management to your list of soft skills, these five leading certifications will help you add to or boost those skills and, in turn, increase your value.

    If there’s a single set of soft skills that’s been fixed on the IT radar for the past decade or so, to the point where it’s become almost as sought after and every bit as valuable as top-level credentials, it must be project management. Thanks in large part to the immensely popular and widely pursued Project Management Professional (PMP) certification from the Project Management Institute (PMI), this area has become an incredibly valuable merit badge for IT professionals of all stripes. That’s because it enhances and expands on the value of just about any other kind of technical credential.

    Project management has everything to do with planning, scheduling, budgeting for, and then executing and reporting on projects of all shapes and sizes. In fact, anything and everything that IT does can be understood or handled as a project of some kind. It applies to one-of-a-kind activities that happen only once or very seldom (think hardware or OS upgrades or migrating from older to newer platforms or infrastructures). Ditto for a recurring series of activities that repeat regularly (think security patches, software updates or other regular maintenance tasks). Thus, project management is incredibly important and valuable to IT operations across the board.

    According to PMI’s Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey, 10th Edition [pdf], IT professionals who hold a PMP report median base annual salaries in the U.S. of almost $116,000. The top 25 percent of survey respondents report base salaries of at least $139,000. Depending on such factors as complexity and size of projects, location, fields of expertise (e.g., IT, construction or healthcare), and experience, salaries for some PMP credential holders can be much higher still.

    Robert Half’s Technology & IT 2019 Salary Guide lists project management as a hot certification, with salaries varying slightly by technology area. It cites a salary range of $93,000 to $157,500 for project managers in application development environments. Project managers engaged in consulting and system integration roles can expect to earn $96,250 to $163,500 nationwide. This explains nicely why PMP appears in nearly every top 10 list of popular, targeted or most desirable certifications since the early 2000s. It’s no surprise that Robert Half also lists the PMP credential, along with Agile and Scrum certifications, as “highly valued technology certifications” trending up in the IT industry.

    To give you an idea of which project management credentials employers look for in prospective candidates, they conducted a quick survey on some popular job boards. Clearly, the PMP is the overall favorite and remains their No. 1 pick for must-have project management certifications. PMI’s entry-level project management credential, the CAPM, also made their top five. The CSM from Scrum Alliance, along with ASQ’s Certified Six Sigma Black Belt and Green Belt credentials, round out those picks. It’s also worth noting that job postings for project managers increased by 20 percent from 2018 across all project management certifications.

    Job board survey results (in alphabetical order, by certification) Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs LinkUp.com Total CAPM (Project Management Institute) 593 718 1,187 381 2,879 CSM (Scrum Alliance) 3,550 4,916 9,286 3,052 20,804 CSSBB (ASQ) 998 1,231 1,817 848 4,864 CSSGB (ASQ) 1,205 1,457 1,966 842 5,470 PMP (Project Management Institute) 13,683 18,311 28,064 9,096 69,154 CAPM: Certified Associate in Project Management CAPM: Certified Associate in Project Management

    The same organization behind the more senior Project Management Professional (PMP) credential also backs the Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM). In fact, the CAPM is properly considered a steppingstone credential for those who wish to attain PMP status by stages, rather than in a single giant leap. That’s why PMI describes the CAPM as a “valuable entry-level certification for project practitioners” that is “designed for those with little or no project experience.”

    The PMP requires three to five years of documented on-the-job project management experience, depending on the educational background of each applicant. On the other hand, the CAPM requires only a high school diploma and either 1,500 hours of documented on-the-job experience (about nine months of full-time work) or 23 hours of project management classroom training prior to taking the exam. The education prerequisite can be met by completing PMI’s Project Management Basics online course which costs $350 for PMI members and $400 for non-members.

    Nor does the CAPM require continuing education (which PMI calls PDUs, or professional development units) as does the PMP (60 PDUs every three years) to maintain this credential. To recertify, CAPM holders must retake the test once every five years.

    The CAPM is one of a small set of entry-level project management certifications (including the CompTIA Project+) that IT professionals interested in project management might choose to pursue. Remember, though, that it is just a steppingstone to the PMP.

    Unless you work in a large organization where a project management team is in place that includes junior as well as senior positions, the CAPM by itself is unlikely to provide a ticket to a project management job. However, it’s ideal for IT professionals for whom project management is a part-time job role or who want to grow into full-time project management.

    CAPM facts and figures Certification name Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) Prerequisites/required courses High school diploma, associate’s degree or global equivalent, plus 1,500 hours of project management experience or 23 hours of project management education

    Certification valid for five years; candidates must retake test to maintain credential.

    Number of exams One (150 questions; 15 questions are unscored; three hours to complete) Cost per exam Computer- or paper-based exams:

    PMI member: $225 (retake $150)

    Nonmember: $300 (retake $200)

    Exam available in online proctored or center-based test (CBT) formats.

    Exam administered by Pearson VUE.

    URL www.pmi.org/Certification/Certified-Associate-in-Project-Management-CAPM.aspx Self-study materials PMI maintains a list of self-study materials on its test guidance webpage, including the test Content Outline [pdf], demo test questions [pdf] and the CAPM Handbook [pdf].

    Numerous books are available, including:

    A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Sixth Edition; Sept. 22, 2017; Project Management Institute; ISBN-10: 1628251840; ISBN-13: 978-1628251845 (available for free obtain to PMI members)

    CAPM test Prep, Third Edition, by Rita Mulcahy, Sept. 2013, RMC Publications, ISBN-10: 1932735720, ISBN-13: 978-1932735727

    CAPM/PMP Project Management Certification All-in-One test Guide, Fourth Edition, by Joseph Phillips; April 23, 2018; McGraw-Hill Education; ISBN-10: 1259861627; ISBN-13: 978-1259861628

    CSM: Certified ScrumMaster

    As companies seek to deliver more for less, many adopt Agile methodologies to streamline processes, build quality into products and ensure that final builds meet customer requirements. As Agile methodologies have become more popular, it’s no surprise that they see increased demand for IT practitioners qualified to manage projects in Agile environments.

    While different Scrum master certifications are available, their pick is the Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) from the Scrum Alliance. This nonprofit encourages adoption of Scrum and Agile practices, promotes user groups and learning events, and provides resources for professional development. The organization boasts more than 500,000 certified practitioners worldwide.

    The Scrum Alliance provides a support system for Scrum practitioners, including Scrum Gatherings, user groups, virtual communications, coaching, online training and much more. In addition to community and advocacy activities, the Scrum Alliance offers numerous Scrum-related certifications at the foundation, advanced, professional, elevated (guide) and leadership levels. Scrum Alliance certifications are designed for team members engaged in Scrum master, product owners and developer roles. The Scrum master and product owner tracks offer credentials at the foundation, advanced and professional levels which the developer track only offers a foundation and professional level cert.

  • Scrum Master Track: Certified ScrumMaster (CSM), Advanced Certified ScrumMaster (A-CSM), and Certified Scrum Professional – Scrum Master (CSP-SM)
  • Product Owner Track: Certified Scrum Product Owner (CSPO) Advanced Certified Scrum Product Owner (A-CSPO) and Certified Scrum Professional – Product Owner (CSP-PO)
  • Developer Track: Certified Scrum Developer (CSD) and Certified Scrum Professional (CSP)
  • Elevated or guide credentials: Certified Scrum Trainer (CST), Certified Team Coach (CTC) and Certified Enterprise Coach (CEC)
  • Agile Leadership: The Scrum Alliance also offers the Certified Agile Leadership (CAL) program, a credential based on a combination of education and validated practice. There are two credentials – the Certified Agile Leadership I and Certified Agile Leadership II.
  • For project managers getting started as Scrum practitioners, the CSM makes an excellent entry-level credential. Not only must candidates demonstrate an understanding of Scrum principles and values, but they’ll learn how to implement and apply Scrum in practice. The Scrum Alliance provides CSMs with multiple resources, plus checklists and information about the servant-leader role of the Scrum master.

    Certified ScrumMaster facts and figures CSSBB: Certified Six Sigma Black Belt

    Globally recognized, ASQ certifications attest to candidate expertise, mastery of industry and regulation standards, and mastery of the ASQ Body of Knowledge. Currently, ASQ offers 18 credentials, three of which specifically target project management: the Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) (expert level), the Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB) (professional level) and the Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB) (entry level).

    The Certified Six Sigma Black Belt is ASQ’s highest Six Sigma credential. The CSSBB aims at experienced practitioners who understand Six Sigma methodologies (including the DMAIC model), tools, systems and philosophies. CSSBBs can lead teams or manage team dynamics, roles and responsibilities.

    The path to CSSBB certification is rigorous. In addition to passing a comprehensive exam, candidates must complete two projects that employ Six Sigma tools and processes, resulting in project improvement and a positive financial project impact. An affidavit is also required to attest to the veracity of the project. Alternatively, candidates with at least three years of experience in one or more of the Six Sigma Body of Knowledge areas need only complete one Black Belt project.

    CSSBB candidates are expected to demonstrate mastery of the ASQ Black Belt Body of Knowledge, called standards:

  • Organization-wide Planning and Deployment (organization-wide considerations, leadership)
  • Organization Process Management and Measures (impact on stakeholders, benchmarking, business measures)
  • Team Management (team formation, facilitation, dynamics, training)
  • Define (voice of the customer, business case and project charter, project management tools, analytical tools)
  • Measure (process characteristics, data collection, measurement systems, basic statistics, probability, process capability)
  • Analyze (measuring and modeling relationships between variables, hypothesis testing, failure mode and effects analysis, other analysis methods)
  • Improve (design of experiments, lean methods, implementation)
  • Control (statistical process control and other controls, maintain controls, sustain improvements)
  • Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Framework and Methodologies (common DFSS methodologies, design for DVX, robust designs)
  • The CSSBB is valid for three years. To recertify, candidates must earn 18 recertification units or retake the exam.

    CSSBB facts and figures Certification name Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) Prerequisites/required courses Two completed projects with signed project affidavit, or one completed project with signed affidavit plus three years of experience in one or more areas of the Six Sigma Body of Knowledge Number of exams One: computer-based (165 questions, 4.5 hours) or paper-based (150 questions, 4 hours) Cost per exam $438 members, $538 nonmembers (retakes $338)

    Exams administered by Prometric.

    URL https://asq.org/cert/six-sigma-black-belt Self-study materials ASQ maintains a comprehensive list of test prep materials, including training opportunities, question banks, interactive demo exams, books and other recommended references. CSSGB: Certified Six Sigma Green Belt

    The Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB) by ASQ is a professional-level credential targeting experienced Six Sigma practitioners. Often, a CSSGB works under the direction of the more senior CSSBB or as an assistant. CSSGBs identify issues and drive quality and process improvements in projects.

    To earn the credential, candidates should have at least three years of experience working with Six Sigma processes, systems and tools. The work experience must have been full time and compensated; an unpaid internship, for example, doesn’t count. In addition, work performed must have been in at least one of the Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge competency areas.

    In addition to work experience, candidates must pass an test that tests their knowledge of the Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge. Currently, the Green Belt Body of Knowledge includes six competency areas:

  • Overview: Six Sigma and the Organization (organizational goals, lean principles, design methodologies)
  • Define Phase (project identification, customer voice, project management basics, management and planning tools, project business results, team dynamics and performance)
  • Measurement Phase (process analysis and documentation, probability and statistics, statistical distributions, data collection, measurement system analysis, process and performance capability)
  • Analyze Phase (exploratory data analysis, hypothesis testing)
  • Improve Phase (design of experiments, root cause analysis, lean tools)
  • Control Phase (statistical process control, control plan, lean tools for process control)
  • Overall, this is an excellent credential for those who have some experience but are not quite ready to take on the roles and responsibilities of a Black Belt.

    CSSGB facts and figures Certification name Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB) Prerequisites/required courses Three years of experience in one or more of the Six Sigma Green Belt Body of Knowledge areas

    Experience must be a full-time paid position (internships do not meet the experience requirement)

    Number of exams One: computer-based (110 questions, 4.5 hours) or paper-based (100 questions, 4 hours) Cost per exam $338 members, $438 nonmembers; retakes cost $238

    Exams administered by Prometric.

    URL https://asq.org/cert/six-sigma-green-belt Self-study materials ASQ maintains a comprehensive list of test prep materials, including training opportunities, question banks, interactive demo exams, books and other recommended references. PMP: Project Management Professional

    The Project Management Institute (PMI) not only stands behind its Project Management Professional certification, it works with academia and training companies to ensure proper coverage and currency in the various curricula that support this and other PMI credentials. Boasting more than 500,000 global members and 750,000 PMP certified professionals around the world, PMI’s PMP remains one of the most prestigious project management credentials available. (Note: The PMP’s precursor, the CAPM, is covered in an earlier section of this article.)

    That’s why you can obtain college- and university-based PMP training from so many institutions. It’s also why you may sometimes find PMP coverage integrated into certain degree programs (often at the master’s degree level).

    The PMP credential is coveted by employers seeking the most highly skilled project management professionals. Developed by project managers, the PMP certification is the highest level offered in PMI certifications. It is designed to ensure that credential-holders possess the skills and qualifications necessary to successfully manage all phases of a project, including initiating, planning, scheduling, controlling and monitoring, and closing out the project.

    PMP certified projects managers are also well versed and skilled in managing all aspects of the triple constraints – time, cost and scope. Employers depend on the skills of PMP professionals to manage budgets, track costs, manage scope creep, identify how changes to the triple constraints may introduce risk into the project, and minimize such risk to protect the project investment.

    The standards for PMP certification are rigorous. Beyond passing a comprehensive exam, credential holders must first demonstrate and certify that they have the skills and education necessary to succeed in the project management field. Credential seekers should be ready to provide documentation for items such as education, projects worked on and hours spent in each of the five project management stages – initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing out the project.

    While it’s difficult to achieve, the rewards for PMP credential holders can be significant. According to PMI’s Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey, 10th Edition, PMPs in the U.S. earn an average of 23 percent more than their non-credentialed counterparts. The survey reports median salaries of PMPs in the United States at $115,000, as opposed to $92,000 for non-PMP certified project managers.

    For those interested in program management or wishing to specialize in a project management area, PMI offers several interesting additional credentials:

    The PMP remains a nonpareil certification for IT and other professionals whose responsibilities encompass project management. It is the standard against which all other project management credentials are judged.

    It should be noted that, after meeting the prerequisites, candidates are also required to pass a rigorous exam. Candidates must obtain an eligibility ID from PMI before they can register for the exam.

    PMP facts and figures Certification name Project Management Professional (PMP) Prerequisites/required Courses Required courses: None

    Prerequisite skills: Four-year degree, 4,500 hours in leading and directing projects, and 35 hours of project management education


    Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate’s degree or equivalent), 7,500 hours leading and directing projects, and 35 hours of project management education

    Note: Credential holders must earn 60 professional development units (PDUs) per each three-year cycle to maintain certification.

    Number of exams One (200 questions, 4 hours) Cost per exam Paper* and computer-based exams:

    PMI member: $405 (retake $275)

    Nonmember: $555 (retake $375)

    *Paper-based test only available if candidates lives more than 150 miles from testing center or if testing center is not available in the country of residence and travel would provide an undue burden.

    Exam administered by Prometric. Eligibility ID from PMI required to register.

    URL www.pmi.org/Certification/Project-Management-Professional-PMP.aspx Self-study materials PMI maintains a list of training resources on the PMP test guidance webpage, including links to demo questions, the PMP test Content Outline [pdf] and the PMP Handbook [pdf]. Additional training materials (quizzes, publications, books, practice guides and more) are available from the PMI Store.

    Numerous books are available, including:

    Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Sixth Edition; Sept. 22, 2017; Project Management Institute; ISBN-10: 1628251840; ISBN-13: 978-1628251845 (available for free obtain to PMI members)

    PMP test Prep: Accelerated Learning to Pass the Project Management Professional (PMP) Exam, Ninth Edition, by Rita Mulcahy; Feb. 1, 2018; RMC Publications Inc.; ISBN-10: 1943704040; ISBN-13: 978-143704040

    CAPM/PMP Project Management Certification All-in-One test Guide, Fourth Edition, by Joseph Phillips; April 23, 2018; McGraw-Hill Education; ISBN-10: 1259861627; ISBN-13: 978-1259861628

    Practice exams: PMP test practice questions and Study Guide, Ninth Edition, by J. LeRoy Ward and Ginger Levin; June 28, 2018; Auerbach Publications, ISBN-10: 1138440299; ISBN-13: 978-1138440299

    Beyond the top 5: More project management certifications

    Project management is truly a white-hot area for both certification seekers and employers. Several other project management certifications are available, for general IT project management as well as software development project management.

    Honorable mention goes to the Global Association for Quality Management (GAQM) project management certifications, such as the Professional in Project Management, Associate in Project Management and Certified Project Director. The Prince2 Foundation and Practitioner qualifications (featured in the 2017 top-five list) are also excellent credentials and worth honorable mention.

    The CompTIA Project+ credential (featured in the 2017 top-five list and honorable mention in 2018) remains a well-known entry-level project management certification for those starting their project management careers. ASQ’s Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB) is another entry-level credential worth exploring, particularly if you’re interested in eventually moving up to the more senior Green and Black Belt credentials.

    Most graduate business, management and management information systems (MIS) programs offer project management training to students, and some offer certificate programs outside the project management organizations as well.

    You’ll also find training and occasional certification around various project management tool sets. For example, some Microsoft Learning Partners offer courses on Microsoft Project, and you can find a dizzying array of project management packages on Wikipedia’s comparison of project management software page.

    The CAPM and Project+ remain the best-known entry-level project management certifications, with the PMP as the primary professional target and capstone for would-be professional IT project managers. Don’t forget to consider PMI’s related certifications as well. For project managers seeking entry into the realm of Scrum, the CSM is the best entry-level cert for Scrum practitioners.

    3 questions you'll definitely be asked at a tech interview

    No one loves a job interview: looking for a new job is so stressful it has given rise to what's known as job hunting anxiety. A survey by background check company JDP found that 93% of people have experienced anxiety over job interviews.

    Interviews are, for most candidates, a high stakes activity. The pressure and anticipation can lead to nerves and anxiety. One reason is because it's not an easy process to get a new job, Forbes finding that on average, 118 people will apply for a single job.

    Experts also say it can take up to 10 applications for 47% of job seekers to receive an invitation to one or two job interviews. And there are also 38.3% of applicants who don't get invited to an interview at all – even after 10 attempts. No wonder job hunters are stressed.

    Recruiter screening

    Most tech and knowledge workers will be aware of – and will likely have participated in – at least one recruiter screening call or interview in the course of their career. It is easy to assume that this is an informal check-in, but for a recruiter or hiring manager, it is the first step of the whole process and it needs to be taken seriously by candidates.

    Your performance on this call can significantly impact your chances of getting a second interview.

    Happily, there are things you can do to help move things forward. One of these is to anticipate the kind of questions you'll be asked, which allows you to prep and practice your answers in advance. A accurate report has highlighted three key things tech candidates should be asked at a screening interview. The first is that old chestnut, "tell me about yourself."

    This question has the potential to tie interviewees up in knots – should they talk about their hobbies or their personal life – but what the interviewer actually wants from you here is a succinct summation of your career to date, as it relates to the job you are going for. You can leave out your college bar job, but definitely include all and any professional experience that will make you stand out.

    Secondly, your interviewer will want to get a sense of whether you've got the right skills for the role. Review the job description and make sure that your answer tallies with what the company is looking for. Highlight the skills you use most often, as opposed to ones you may be rusty on.

    And lastly, to help your interviewer understand that you'll be a good culture fit, if you are asked what your career goals are, your answer matters. You might want this job so that you can progress your own skill set, build a long-term career path or make a move towards a less technical route into management.

    It's good to let your interviewer know that you see the role as a long-term prospect; if they think this is just a stepping stone for you, your candidacy may not be quite as attractive.

    Looking for a new job now? The TechSpot Job Board is the perfect place to start your search. It features thousands of jobs, like the three below.

    Senior .Net Engineer, Alliance Inspection Management, LLC, Farmington Hills

    As a Software Development Engineer, you enjoy working across the full stack and with multiple technologies. You will also provide APIs for all of AiM's integrated services. You'll write and deliver functional products in a full stack (frontend, API/service, and backend) development environment, will define the roadmap for the team by working closely with product and/or technology partners, and have the ability to create, design, code, and unit test technical solutions using best practices and standards.

    You will also design a platform framework that can be reused by other AiM products/services.To apply, you'll need seven to 10 years' of software engineering experience, demonstrable experience with Agile processes (Kanban, Scrum, Scrumban), experience with Microservices/APIs, as well as hands-on experience in developing ASP.NET Core/ ASP .NET MVC applications. Find out more here.

    Data Analyst/Data Engineer, ENSCO, Inc., Fort Washington

    ENSCO Mission Systems Group (MSG) is recruiting a Data Analyst/Data Engineer who will interface with functional and technical experts and support the modernization, alignment, and integration of Combatant Command (CCMD) intelligence capabilities using mission-driven analysis based on the development of sound, and validated architectures.

    Active DOD TS/SCI clearance is required, and you'll need a Bachelor's degree in engineering, mathematics, computer science, data analytics, or another scientific or technical discipline, plus five years' of relevant experience. Apply here.

    Senior Director, Infrastructure & Cloud Services Intake & Demand Management, The Travelers Companies, Inc., Hartford

    As the Senior Director, ICS Intake & Demand Management lead, you will be responsible for the strategy and execution of a scalable, centralized intake and demand management and prioritization framework, leveraging strategic technologies and best practices.

    You will establish and manage a view, and necessary reporting, of the ICS portfolio of demand across work archetypes, providing key insights on the flow of work through intake and demand, resource and capacity, and dependencies and risks. You should have a Bachelor's degree in a related field plus seven years' of project management experience. See the full list of requirements.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug