Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PCAP-31-03
Exam Name : Certified Associate in Python Programming - 2023
Vendor Name : AICPA
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PCAP-31-03 test Format | PCAP-31-03 Course Contents | PCAP-31-03 Course Outline | PCAP-31-03 test Syllabus | PCAP-31-03 test Objectives


EXAM CODE: PCAP-31-03
EXAM NAME: Certified Associate in Python Programming

SCORES:
Section 1 → 6 items, Max Raw Score: 12 (12%)
Section 2 → 5 items, Max Raw Score: 14 (14%)
Section 3 → 8 items, Max Raw Score: 18 (18%)
Section 4 → 12 items, Max Raw Score: 34 (34%)
Section 5 → 9 items, Max Raw Score: 22 (22%)

The test candidate who has passed the PCAP-31-03 test demonstrates the following proficiency in Python programming:
- an ability to design, develop and Excellerate multi-module computer applications coded in Python
- an ability to analyze and model real-life problems in OOP categories
- experience allowing her/him to take a job as a junior developer
- sufficient skills to create and develop her/his own programming portfolio
- the potential to use Python in everyday life applications including DIY activities

Section 1: Modules and Packages
Section 2: Exceptions
Section 3: Strings
Section 4: Object-Oriented Programming
Section 5: Miscellaneous


Modules and Packages (12%)
PCAP-31-03 1.1 – Import and use modules and packages

import variants: import, from import, import as, import *
advanced qualifying for nested modules
the dir() function
the sys.path variable
PCAP-31-03 1.2 – Perform evaluations using the math module

functions: ceil(), floor(), trunc(), factorial(), hypot(), sqrt()
PCAP-31-03 1.3 – Generate random values using the random module

functions: random(), seed(), choice(), sample()
PCAP-31-03 1.4 – Discover host platform properties using the platform module

functions: platform(), machine(), processor(), system(), version(), python_implementation(), python_version_tuple()
PCAP-31-03 1.5 – Create and use user-defined modules and packages

idea and rationale;
the __pycache__ directory
the __name__ variable
public and private variables
the __init__.py file
searching for/through modules/packages
nested packages vs. directory trees

Exceptions (14%)
PCAP-31-03 2.1 – Handle errors using Python-defined exceptions

except, except:-except, except:-else:, except (e1, e2)
the hierarchy of exceptions
raise, raise ex
assert
event classes
except E as e
the arg property
PCAP-31-02 2.2 – Extend the Python exceptions hierarchy with self-defined exceptions

self-defined exceptions
defining and using self-defined exceptions

Strings (18%)
PCAP-31-03 3.1 – Understand machine representation of characters

encoding standards: ASCII, UNICODE, UTF-8, code points, escape sequences
PCAP-31-03 3.2 – Operate on strings

functions: ord(), chr()
indexing, slicing, immutability
iterating through strings, concatenating, multiplying, comparing (against strings and numbers)
operators: in, not in
PCAP-31-03 3.3 – Employ built-in string methods

methods: .isxxx(), .join(), .split(), .sort(), sorted(), .index(), .find(), .rfind()

Object-Oriented Programming (34%)
PCAP-31-03 4.1 – Understand the Object-Oriented approach

ideas and notions: class, object, property, method, encapsulation, inheritance, superclass, subclass, identifying class components
PCEP-31-03 4.2 – Employ class and object properties

instance vs. class variables: declarations and initializations
the __dict__ property (objects vs. classes)
private components (instances vs. classes)
name mangling
PCAP-31-03 4.3 – Equip a class with methods

declaring and using methods
the self parameter
PCAP-31-03 4.4 – Discover the class structure

introspection and the hasattr() function (objects vs classes)
properties: __name__, __module__ , __bases__
PCAP-31-03 4.5 – Build a class hierarchy using inheritance

single and multiple inheritance
the isinstance() function
overriding
operators:
not is
, is
polymorphism
overriding the __str__() method
diamonds
PCAP-31-03 4.6 – Construct and initialize objects

declaring and invoking constructors

Miscellaneous (22%)
PCAP-31-03 5.1 – Build complex lists using list comprehension

list comprehensions: the if operator, nested comprehensions
PCAP-31-03 5.2 – Embed lambda functions into the code

lambdas: defining and using lambdas
self-defined functions taking lambdas as arguments
functions: map(), filter()
PCAP-31-03 5.3 – Define and use closures

closures: meaning and rationale
defining and using closures
PCAP-31-03 5.4 – Understand basic Input/Output terminology

I/O modes
predefined streams
handles vs. streams
text vs. binary modes
PCAP-31-03 5.5 – Perform Input/Output operations

the open() function
the errno variable and its values
functions: close(), .read(), .write(), .readline(), readlines()
using bytearray as input/output buffer



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug