Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CIA-I
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CIA-I test Format | CIA-I Course Contents | CIA-I Course Outline | CIA-I test Syllabus | CIA-I test Objectives


Part 1 – Essentials of Internal Auditing

125 questions I 2.5 hours (150 minutes)



The CIA test Part 1 is well aligned with The IIAs International Professional Practices Framework (IPPF) and includes six domains covering the foundation of internal auditing; independence and objectivity; proficiency and due professional care; quality assurance and improvement programs; governance, risk management, and control; and fraud risk. Part one tests candidates knowledge, skills, and abilities related to the International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing, particularly the Attribute Standards (series 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1300) as well as Performance Standard 2100.



Part 2 – Practice of Internal Auditing

100 questions I 2.0 hours (120 minutes)



The CIA test Part 2 includes four domains focused on managing the internal audit activity, planning the engagement, performing the engagement, and communicating engagement results and monitoring progress. Part 2 tests candidates knowledge, skills, and abilities particularly related to Performance Standards (series 2000, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2500, and 2600) and current internal audit practices.



Part 3 – Business Knowledge for Internal Auditing

100 questions I 2.0 hours (120 minutes)



The CIA test Part 3 includes four domains focused on business acumen, information security, information technology, and financial management. Part Three is designed to test candidates knowledge, skills, and abilities particularly as they relate to these core business concepts.



CIA test Development and Scoring

The CIA test is developed following best practices with the support of experts and professionals. Learn more about the test development process and how exams are scored.



The revised CIA test Part 1 is well aligned with The IIAs International Professional Practices Framework (IPPF) and includes six domains covering the foundation of internal auditing; independence and objectivity; proficiency and due professional care; quality assurance and improvement programs; governance, risk management, and control; and fraud risk. Part One tests candidates knowledge, skills, and abilities related to the International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing, particularly the Attribute Standards (series 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1300) as well as Performance Standard 2100.​


Domains Collapse All

I. Foundations of Internal Auditing (15%)

​ ​ ​Cognitive Level

A​ ​​Interpret The IIA's Mission of Internal Audit, Definition of Internal Auditing, and Core Principles for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing, and the purpose, authority, and responsibility of the internal audit activity Proficient

​B ​Explain the requirements of an internal audit charter (required components, board approval, communication of the charter, etc.) Basic

​C ​Interpret the difference between assurance and consulting services provided by the internal audit activity ​Proficient

​D ​Demonstrate conformance with the IIA Code of Ethics ​​Proficient

II. ​Independence and Objectivity (15%)

​ ​ ​Cognitive Level

A​ ​​Interpret organizational independence of the internal audit activity (importance of independence, functional reporting, etc.) Basic

​B ​Identify whether the internal audit activity has any impairments to its independence Basic

​C ​Assess and maintain an individual internal auditor's objectivity, including determining whether an individual internal auditor has any impairments to his/her objectivity ​Proficient

​D ​Analyze policies that promote objectivity ​​Proficient

III. Proficiency and Due Professional Care (18%)​

​ ​ ​Cognitive Level

A​ ​​Recognize the knowledge, skills, and competencies required (whether developed or procured) to fulfill the responsibilities of the internal audit activity Basic

​B ​Demonstrate the knowledge and competencies that an internal auditor needs to possess to perform his/her individual responsibilities, including technical skills and soft skills (communication skills, critical thinking, persuasion/negotiation and collaboration skills, etc.) Proficient

​C Demonstrate due professional care ​Proficient

​D Demonstrate an individual internal auditor's competency through continuing professional development ​​Proficient

IV. Quality Assurance and Improvement Program (7%)​

​ ​ ​Cognitive Level

A​ ​​Describe the required elements of the quality assurance and improvement program (internal exams, external exams, etc.) Basic

​B ​Describe the requirement of reporting the results of the quality assurance and improvement program to the board or other governing body Basic

​C ​​Identify appropriate disclosure of conformance vs. nonconformance with The IIAs International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing Basic

V. Governance, Risk Management, and Control (35%)

​ ​ ​Cognitive Level

A​ ​​Describe the concept of organizational governance Basic

​B ​Recognize the impact of organizational culture on the overall control environment and individual engagement risks and controls Basic

​C ​Recognize and interpret the organization's ethics and compliance-related issues, alleged violations, and dispositions ​Basic

​D ​Describe corporate social responsibility ​​Basic

​E ​Interpret fundamental concepts of risk and the risk management process Proficient​

​F ​Describe globally accepted risk management frameworks appropriate to the organization (COSO - ERM, ISO 31000, etc.) Basic​

G​ ​Examine the effectiveness of risk management within processes and functions ​Proficient

​H ​Recognize the appropriateness of the internal audit activitys role in the organization's risk management process ​Basic

​I ​Interpret internal control concepts and types of controls ​Proficient

​J ​Apply globally accepted internal control frameworks appropriate to the organization (COSO, etc.) ​Proficient

​K ​Examine the effectiveness and efficiency of internal controls Proficient​

VI. Fraud Risks (10%)​

​ ​ ​Cognitive Level

A​ ​​Interpret fraud risks and types of frauds and determine whether fraud risks require special consideration when conducting an engagement Proficient

​B ​Evaluate the potential for occurrence of fraud (red flags, etc.) and how the organization detects and manages fraud risks Proficient

​C ​Recommend controls to prevent and detect fraud and education to Excellerate the organization's fraud awareness ​Proficient

​D ​Recognize techniques and internal audit roles related to forensic auditing (interview, investigation, testing, etc.) ​​Basic

Additional noteworthy elements related to the revised CIA Part One test syllabus:



IPPF elements such as the Mission of Internal Audit and Core Principles for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing are included.

The syllabus features greater alignment with The IIAs Attribute Standards.

The test covers the differences between assurance and consulting engagements.

The test covers appropriate disclosure of conformance vs. nonconformance with the Standards.

The largest domain is “Governance, Risk Management, and Control,” which makes up 35%of the exam.

A portion of the test requires candidates to demonstrate a basic comprehension of concepts; another portion requires candidates to demonstrate proficiency in their knowledge, skills, and abilities.



The Certified Internal Auditor® (CIA®) test is developed following best practices with the support of experts and professionals. In accordance with test development industry standards, a job analysis study is conducted with a diverse and experienced group of internal auditors to identify the essential knowledge and skills required for internal auditors.

This information is then distributed more broadly to the field through an online survey to obtain additional feedback from internal auditors around the world, to validate its importance and ensure that it reflects current internal audit practices.

Based on the results of the global job analysis study, the CIA test syllabus is developed. The test syllabus guides the development of test questions to ensure the fairness and validity of the exam.




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug