Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Becoming a Servant Leader: Tips to Become a Great Scrum Master

When your organization begins using Agile methodology for projects in the development pipeline, success hinges of many things, but none more important than the team members themselves — their success and their buy-in. And in an Agile environment, if your software engineers are the players, then the Scrum Master is the team manager and is instrumental to achieve the results you want from your newly streamlined pipeline. With that in mind, let’s explore some of the skills and traits that make a world- class Scrum Master.

What Makes a Great Scrum Master?  A great way to think of a Scrum Master is as the coach of the Scrum team. They are there to help the players succeed and to help the team win — where winning is understood to be achieving the business goals for whatever software development is underway while helping the individual team members get better. In a well-designed team, the two go hand-in-hand: individual and team success. Team cohesion and empowerment are the core of what great Agile teams do.

Scrum Master SkillsA Scrum Master needs to have many of the core skills expected in technical and leadership roles:  communication, adaptability, technical capability, and flexibility. These are important, but they are not what differentiates a good Scrum Master from a great one. What does differentiate a great Scrum Master is a strong analytical mindset and superb facilitation skills.

Facilitation skills are the close cousin of communication skills, but they are different in important ways. The Scrum Master should lead the Scrum process and offer ideas on how to Strengthen the effectiveness of meetings, discussions and Scrum events. They should also increase the transparency of the processes within the team. The Scrum Master advises teams on which techniques are helpful and which aren’t. Sometimes, the Scrum Master must take on the role of psychologist to manage the stress level of the team or to resolve conflicts.  Conflict resolution expertise is an added benefit in these situations.

The Scrum master provides support and coaching to team members. Scrum Masters help their dev teams, product owners and the entire organization understand what Scrum is and when (and how) it works best. Remember, the Scrum Master is not a manager. A Scrum Master is a servant-leader and should be an example of persuasion, the right approach, and process discipline (though with a firm grounding in the real world). Scrum Masters should push the team to maximize their efforts as a part of the team, through persuasion, and not using authority or ‘because I said so’ mentality.

Scrum Masters are typically not the technical mentor for software developers. This should be done by either a technical lead or software architect who is part of the team.  If an organization has a separate architect group or innovation team, these groups can also provide technical mentorship. Technical mentorship is something that every developer wants and eventually aspires to provide. The Scrum Master does not need to provide it, but if they know there is a vacuum, they should be helping to address it for the sake of the individual, team, and success of the business.

How to Acquire Scrum Master SkillsWith all this expertise, you might be wondering how to acquire this unique skill set. Part of this is about practice and experience, where you can see first-hand how to become a more intuitive facilitator and leader. When it comes to Scrum specifics, the best ways to gain this expertise are continuous education (reading, classes, certifications, blogs, etc.) and practice. The best way to completely digest the Scrum Master’s roles and responsibilities is to read the “Scrum Guide” from the authors of the Scrum framework, Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland.

If possible, you should also seek the advice of experienced Scrum Masters within your organization. Large organizations may find it beneficial to employ not just one but multiple Scrum Masters. Seeking the mentorship of those more experienced than you can provide valuable insights. It can be advised to run training classes for aspiring Scrum Masters that teach both theory and practical insights from those doing the job day-to-day in a consulting setting.

Some of the more experienced Scrum Masters might have a certification attached to their title. The question is if certification is necessary to be a good Scrum Master or to acquire a Scrum Master position. In short, the answer is no, but it is highly recommended. Even the best self-taught or highly experienced individuals can benefit from certification.

The primary benefits of certification are a comprehensive understanding of fundamentals and fully articulating the ‘why’ of something. Knowing the ‘why’ is particularly important when you begin working with an individual or organization who is new to Scrum.

Often, people are attached to the benefits of earlier development methodologies. For these individuals, it is very helpful and important to articulate ‘why’ the Scrum Master (or product owner or team members) do what they do and why the Scrum Master recommends things be done a certain way.

However, if you decide to take the self-education route, you need to strategically select your educational resources in the appropriate way. Today, there is a bounty of Scrum courses, but not all of them are of high quality.

If you would like to save time, take a look at the courses from the founders of Scrum, found here. However, if you would like to save money, you can study independently and read “The Scrum Guide,” complete the  Scrum open exams and read “Scrum and XP from the Trenches.” The quickest way to get up to speed is to read the books and to take a certification course of your own.

Scrum Master Skills are Every-Role SkillsOnce you have acquired the skills and the certification, there may be concerns about pigeon-holing yourself into the Scrum Master role. However, the skills that are necessary to be a great Scrum Master are highly transferable to other roles. In fact, they are directly transferable in the sense that even non-software projects can be run with Scrum. They are also indirectly transferable, in that encouraging participation, commitment and buy-in are at the core of any team, regardless of the nature of the work.

Core principles, such as ownership or inspect and adapt, have universal value, as does the concept of servant-leadership, which has been espoused by many organizations, methodologies and leaders across the world in many different industries and pursuits.

However, don’t worry about needing to look for new positions any time soon, as the long-term outlook for a Scrum Master role looks promising. Software and technology are essential to nearly every business and Agile is at the core of most companies that develop software (whether that is a by-product of what they do). As a result, enterprises need Scrum Masters, many medium-sized businesses need Scrum Masters, and high-tech companies of all sizes need Scrum Masters.

Thus, experienced Scrum Masters with good knowledge and practice in Scrum should consider learning various Scaled Scrum approaches, such as SAFe, less, Nexus and Scrum@Scale. This will allow them to work and apply their knowledge on much bigger projects.

Once you’ve mastered Scrum, it can also be worthwhile to study other alternatives. By knowing about multiple Agile methodologies, you can easily try alternative strategies as needed for a project or support effort when the situation itself does not lend itself to Scrum.

Being a Scrum Master tends to attract a specific type of employee, but in studying the methodologies of Scrum and learning the tactics for facilitating and leading an Agile organization, anyone up to the challenge can take advantage of all the benefits that Scrum has to offer.

SC governor outlines his priorities to keep schools safe

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'This is a time to be bold': Business leaders outline hopes for safe restart of economy

BUSINESS leaders have set out their hopes for a safe restart of the economy as the Government considers plans to lift lockdown.

The British Chambers of Commerce has published an open letter to the Prime Minister, outlining an integrated approach in a three-stage process.

The letter, signed by BCC president Baroness Ruby McGregor-Smith, reads: “The fight against the virus must remain the top priority, but the planning and communication of a carefully-phased approach to lifting lockdown must begin immediately if they are to harness the public health and economic benefits, both now and in the future.”

Praising the work of Chambers of Commerce across the UK, the letter is accompanied by detailed policy proposals for safely reopening the economy.

It includes steps to:

• Safely reopen public spaces and restore services (including schools and public transport)

• Safely reopen workplaces and commercial spaces

• Minimise job losses and business failures

• Rebuild supply chains and customer bases; and

• Put the UK economy on a high-growth, high-wage and low unemployment trajectory as soon as possible

“This is a time to be bold. Government should not shy away from sustaining high levels of public spending in order to restart and renew their communities and the economy in the short and medium-term, while not tying the hands of future generations."

It adds: “We see the journey ahead as having three phases:

• Restart: a phased reopening of the economy

• Rebuild: building resilience for firms and households

• Renew: returning to prosperity and growth

“We plan to share some principles for each of these three phases over the coming weeks, beginning today with ‘Restart’.

“Fundamental prerequisites to beginning this journey include mass testing and contact tracing; clear decisions and guidance on what PPE is needed in workplaces; and proactive steps to ensure adequate supply of PPE to both the health service and to businesses where necessary.”

The letter welcomes the “speed and scale’ of existing government support schemes and indicates they will need to “continue to evolve to support a phased restart of the economy, enabling businesses to survive through this crisis and thrive in the future.”

It adds: "The UK is an open economy. Global perceptions of their restart strategy - and their ability to reopen transport and trade links - are critical. Their strategy must be clearly communicated to international partners and supply them confidence to resume cross-border travel and commerce."

The letter concludes: “We commit to working with you and your colleagues across Government on exploring these phases in detail as they plan their path forward. They owe nothing less to their businesses, and the communities and people they support, who have been battered by this storm.”


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug