Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Google-AAD
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Exam Number: Google-AAD

Exam Name : Google Associate Android Developer


The exam is designed to test the skills of an entry-level Android developer. Therefore, to take this exam, you should have this level of proficiency, either through education, self-study, your current job, or a job you have had in the past. Assess your proficiency by reviewing "Exam Content." If you'd like to take the exam, but feel you need to prepare a bit more, level up your Android knowledge with some great Android training resources.


Android core

User interface

Data management



Android core

To prepare for the Associate Android Developer certification exam, developers should:

Understand the architecture of the Android system

Be able to describe the basic building blocks of an Android app

Know how to build and run an Android app

Display simple messages in a popup using a Toast or a Snackbar

Be able to display a message outside your app's UI using Notifications

Understand how to localize an app

Be able to schedule a background task using WorkManager

User interface

The Android framework enables developers to create useful apps with effective user interface (UIs). Developers need to understand Androids activities, views, and layouts to create appealing and intuitive UIs for their users.

To prepare for the Associate Android Developer certification exam, developers should:

Understand the Android activity lifecycle

Be able to create an Activity that displays a Layout

Be able to construct a UI with ConstraintLayout

Understand how to create a custom View class and add it to a Layout

Know how to implement a custom app theme

Be able to add accessibility hooks to a custom View

Know how to apply content descriptions to views for accessibility

Understand how to display items in a RecyclerView

Be able to bind local data to a RecyclerView list using the Paging library

Know how to implement menu-based navigation

Understand how to implement drawer navigation

Data management

Many Android apps store and retrieve user information that persists beyond the life of the app.

To prepare for the Associate Android Developer certification exam, developers should:

Understand how to define data using Room entities

Be able to access Room database with data access object (DAO)

Know how to observe and respond to changing data using LiveData

Understand how to use a Repository to mediate data operations

Be able to read and parse raw resources or asset files

Be able to create persistent Preference data from user input

Understand how to change the behavior of the app based on user preferences


Debugging is the process of isolating and removing defects in software code. By understanding the debugging tools in Android Studio, Android developers can create reliable and robust applications.

To prepare for the Associate Android Developer certification exam, developers should:

Understand the basic debugging techniques available in Android Studio

Know how to debug and fix issues with an app's functional behavior and usability

Be able to use the System Log to output debug information

Understand how to use breakpoints in Android Studio

Know how to inspect variables using Android Studio


Software testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors and abnormal or unexpected behavior. Testing and test-driven development (TDD) is a critically important step of the software development process for all Android developers. It helps to reduce defect rates in commercial and enterprise software.

To prepare for the Associate Android Developer certification exam, developers should:

Thoroughly understand the fundamentals of testing

Be able to write useful local JUnit tests

Understand the Espresso UI test framework

Know how to write useful automated Android tests

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Google pushes developers to make apps for tablets and foldables

Good news for Android tablets and foldable users. Google is now prioritising apps that are optimised for larger screens. In fact, it plans to downrank apps and games that are not optimised for this purpose.

Recently, Google revised its Play Store guidelines and ranking algorithms to prioritise apps and games optimised for large screens. Apps and games that require optimization will be ranked lower in the Play Store, and those with high crash rates will also be included in this ranking."Apps and games that adhere to their large screen app quality guidelines will now be ranked higher in search and Apps and Games Home," reads the blog post, announcing the new Play Store for large screens.

Although Google has previously encouraged developers to optimise their apps and games for larger screens to Improve the Android experience on tablets, this is the first time it is actively enforcing these rules to encourage developers to take it more seriously.Google had previously introduced warning labels to encourage developers to optimise their apps and games for individual devices. These warning labels were intended to promote Play's per-device technical quality standard. However, these labels have not been sufficient, prompting Google to update its ranking algorithms, and this would directly impact the number of downloads.Google's Play Store has now been tweaked for large-screen devices, including refreshed app listings, improved rankings, streamlined navigation, and split-screen search. Game listings now have video banners at the top, and app details pages are reorganised into a multi-column layout for easier tablet viewing.Starting in August, Google will prioritise apps that can be resized without letterboxing and support both portrait and landscape orientations. These apps will be highlighted in Google Play's "Editors' Choice Apps" and other Play Store features.Additionally, Google is introducing new "content forward formats" that include screenshots specific to the device's form factor. This will allow users to see how the app will appear in landscape or portrait mode.Google's focus on developing apps and games for larger screens comes only after years of complaints from users and when the company has its own large-screen devices, including the Pixel Fold and Pixel Tablet.

Browser developers push back on Google's “web DRM” WEI API

Google Chrome

Google's plans to introduce the Web Environment Integrity (WEI) API on Chrome has been met with fierce backlash from internet software developers, drawing criticism for limiting user freedom and undermining the core principles of the open web.

Employees from Vivaldi, Brave, and Firefox have taken a strong, opposing stance against Google's proposed standard, and some have gone as far as to call it DRM (digital rights management) for websites.

What is the WEI proposal?

Web Environment Integrity (WEI) is a new API proposal that introduces a website trust mechanism that allows websites to evaluate the authenticity of devices and network traffic on clients (browsers) and block fake or insecure interactions.

For example, this mechanism can be used to detect whether a human or bot is visiting a website or whether a particular browser on a specific type of device is trustworthy.

Websites will use the API to request a token from a certified "attester," which will be cryptographically signed to prevent tampering, helping the former validate that the client's information is legitimate.

The purported goal of the WEI proposal is to help websites ascertain the authenticity of the device and software stack from which they're receiving traffic and protect users from fraud by deterring malicious online activities.

Example use cases include detecting fake engagement on social media, phishing campaigns, non-human traffic, bulk account hijacking attempts, game cheating, compromised devices, and password brute-forcing.

Google says this is not a privacy risk as it does not enable cross-site user tracking and won't interfere with browser or plugins/extensions functionality.

Criticism from browser vendors

Although the above sounds positive and helpful, Vivaldi browser's developer J. Picalausa called WEI "dangerous" in a write-up published earlier this week.

"If an entity has the power of deciding which browsers are trusted and which are not, there is no guarantee that they will trust any given browser," writes Picalausa.

"Any new browser would by default not be trusted until they have somehow demonstrated that they are trustworthy, to the discretion of the attesters."

Also, Picalausa underlines the vagueness of Google's proposal, which he says leaves a significant margin for potential abuse like collecting behavioral data from clients.

Vivaldi's post further explains that choosing not to implement WEI will be complicated, as Google can very easily abuse its dominant position in the advertising market to enforce its adoption by the majority of sites, rendering dissenting browser projects useless.

The Brave browser team, however, does not fear this scenario as its co-founder and CEO, Brendan Eich, confirmed that they do not plan to ship WEI.

In response to a thread on Twitter, Eich stated that WEI support will not be shipped in Brave, just as they do with many other privacy-intrusive mechanisms Google inserts into Chrome's code which Brave uses as its basis.


As for Mozilla, the internet organization has yet to express an official opinion. However, Firefox engineer Brian Grinstead commented earlier this week that Mozilla opposes the proposal as it contradicts its principles and vision for the web.

"Mechanisms that attempt to restrict these choices are harmful to the openness of the Web ecosystem and are not good for users," reads Grinstead's statement.

"Additionally, the use cases listed depend on the ability to "detect non-human traffic" which as described would likely obstruct many existing uses of the web such as assistive technologies, automatic testing, and archiving & search engine spiders."

Currently, Google's WEI API proposal is still in an early development phase and may change form or be significantly changed if all stakeholders agree to its implementation.

Also, it will be interesting to see the response of anti-monopolist legislative mechanisms and competition authorities to this proposal if Google attempts to impose it aggressively despite the voices of concern and multiple objections against it. 

BleepingComputer has contacted Apple and Microsoft about whether they will support this new standard but has not received a response at this time.

App developers at the mercy of Apple and Google

When I began my career as a marketing technologist, the tech landscape looked nothing like it does today. Over the years, the U.S. tech sector has grown in incredible ways, and at a breakneck pace. This economic growth has been a boon to communities across the country, including right here in Minnesota. I know first-hand just how rewarding the tech sector can be. As the CEO of a digital marketing firm based here in Minneapolis, I know the impact the digital economy has had on their state.

In a time of economic uncertainty, they need to promote policies that will create jobs and grow the economy. In the tech sector, I am greatly concerned about the anticompetitive practices of Apple and Google when it comes to their app stores.

Just look at the mobile application ecosystem as an example. Millions of Americans rely on their smartphones for a huge range of digital products and services. However, only two companies control the vast majority of all mobile devices: Apple and Google. Because these companies make the operating systems that almost all smartphones rely upon – iOS and Android – they are able to dominate the mobile app marketplace.

In practice, Apple and Google have become gatekeepers to the entire app economy. Their control over their operating systems – and by extension their respective app stores – allow them to enforce arbitrary policies and levy onerous fees on all developers seeking access to their app stores.

Article continues after advertisement

At their company, they provide their customers with new approaches to digital product development, and that includes building mobile products and experiences. Unfortunately, startups face the question of whether to even deal with Apple’s arbitrary App Store policies on a daily basis. What they have found is that Apple’s app review process has nothing to do with safety, security or the consumer. In reality, Apple’s app review process is a litmus test to see just how badly developers want access to the App Store. It’s not transparent, it’s inconsistent, and it’s incredibly costly for app developers. That combination can be a death sentence for a startup or a small business.

Building a minimum viable product – essentially a working beta version of an app – can cost up to $1 million dollars and take months to complete. If that version gets rejected, many times without explanation, it can be devastating to their clients. That means small businesses and non-profits right here in Minnesota live and die at the whims of Apple.

But hope isn’t lost. There is a solution to this problem, and it is legislation called the Open App Markets Act. This bipartisan bill will help open the app store ecosystem and introduce real competition to the marketplace.

Specifically, the Open App Markets Act will prevent app stores from forcing developers to use their in-app payment systems, ban self-preference schemes, allow developers to directly communicating with their customers, and allow customers to obtain apps directly from brands they know and trust.

Ultimately, these changes will benefit consumers the most. In any scenario where a few companies dominate a marketplace, consumers end up paying higher prices for inferior goods and services. That’s true of the mobile app ecosystem of today.

Josh Kimber

Josh Kimber

Josh Kimber

Folks in Minnesota deserve a fair, competitive mobile app economy – and with the Open App Markets Act, we’ll have just that. A truly competitive marketplace will allow developers to create more innovative products, and consumers will enjoy greater choices, better prices, and above all else, more freedom.

Ideologically, I’m opposed to federal regulations for the sake of regulation. But when it comes to the mobile app ecosystem, they clearly need their leaders to take action on the federal level to bolster competition, support small businesses, and protect consumers.

The choice is simple: take action so their tech sector can continue to thrive in Minnesota and across the country or sit on their hands and allow Big Tech companies in California to dominate the entire ecosystem.

Josh Kimber is the founder of Jola Marketing.

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This article is free, thanks to member support.

As a nonprofit newsroom, MinnPost relies on donations from readers like you.

Donate today to keep their in-depth journalism free for all to access.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug