Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Google-ACE
Exam Name : Google Associate Cloud Engineer - 2024
Vendor Name : Google
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Google-ACE test Format | Google-ACE Course Contents | Google-ACE Course Outline | Google-ACE test Syllabus | Google-ACE test Objectives

Length: Two hours

Languages: English, Japanese, Spanish, Indonesian.

Exam format: Multiple choice and multiple select, taken in person at a test center. Locate a Test Center near you.

Prerequisites: None

Recommended experience: 6 months+ hands-on experience with Google Cloud

An Associate Cloud Engineer deploys applications, monitors operations, and manages enterprise solutions. This individual is able to use Google Cloud Console and the command-line interface to perform common platform-based tasks to maintain one or more deployed solutions that leverage Google-managed or self-managed services on Google Cloud.

The Associate Cloud Engineer test assesses your ability to:

Set up a cloud solution environment

Plan and configure a cloud solution

Deploy and implement a cloud solution

Ensure successful operation of a cloud solution

Configure access and security

Setting up a cloud solution environment

Setting up cloud projects and accounts. Activities include:

Creating projects

Assigning users to predefined IAM roles within a project

Managing users in Cloud Identity (manually and automated)

Enabling APIs within projects

Provisioning one or more Stackdriver workspaces

Managing billing configuration. Activities include:

Creating one or more billing accounts

Linking projects to a billing account

Establishing billing budgets and alerts

Setting up billing exports to estimate daily/monthly charges

Installing and configuring the command line interface (CLI), specifically the Cloud SDK (e.g., setting the default project).

Planning and configuring a cloud solution

Planning and estimating GCP product use using the Pricing Calculator

Planning and configuring compute resources. Considerations include:

Selecting appropriate compute choices for a given workload (e.g., Compute Engine, Google Kubernetes Engine, App Engine, Cloud Run, Cloud Functions)

Using preemptible VMs and custom machine types as appropriate

Planning and configuring data storage options. Considerations include:

Product choice (e.g., Cloud SQL, BigQuery, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Bigtable)

Choosing storage options (e.g., Standard, Nearline, Coldline, Archive)

Planning and configuring network resources. Tasks include:

Differentiating load balancing options

Identifying resource locations in a network for availability

Configuring Cloud DNS

Deploying and implementing a cloud solution

Deploying and implementing Compute Engine resources. Tasks include:

Launching a compute instance using Cloud Console and Cloud SDK (gcloud) (e.g., assign disks, availability policy, SSH keys)

Creating an autoscaled managed instance group using an instance template

Generating/uploading a custom SSH key for instances

Configuring a VM for Stackdriver monitoring and logging

Assessing compute quotas and requesting increases

Installing the Stackdriver Agent for monitoring and logging

Deploying and implementing Google Kubernetes Engine resources. Tasks include:

Deploying a Google Kubernetes Engine cluster

Deploying a container application to Google Kubernetes Engine using pods

Configuring Google Kubernetes Engine application monitoring and logging

Deploying and implementing App Engine, Cloud Run, and Cloud Functions resources. Tasks include, where applicable:

Deploying an application, updating scaling configuration, versions, and traffic splitting

Deploying an application that receives Google Cloud events (e.g., Cloud Pub/Sub events, Cloud Storage object change notification events)

Deploying and implementing data solutions. Tasks include:

Initializing data systems with products (e.g., Cloud SQL, Cloud Datastore, BigQuery, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Pub/Sub, Cloud Bigtable, Cloud Dataproc, Cloud Dataflow, Cloud Storage)

Loading data (e.g., command line upload, API transfer, import/export, load data from Cloud Storage, streaming data to Cloud Pub/Sub)

Deploying and implementing networking resources. Tasks include:

Creating a VPC with subnets (e.g., custom-mode VPC, shared VPC)

Launching a Compute Engine instance with custom network configuration (e.g., internal-only IP address, Google private access, static external and private IP address, network tags)

Creating ingress and egress firewall rules for a VPC (e.g., IP subnets, tags, service accounts)

Creating a VPN between a Google VPC and an external network using Cloud VPN

Creating a load balancer to distribute application network traffic to an application (e.g., Global HTTP(S) load balancer, Global SSL Proxy load balancer, Global TCP Proxy load balancer, regional network load balancer, regional internal load balancer)

Deploying a solution using Cloud Marketplace. Tasks include:

Browsing Cloud Marketplace catalog and viewing solution details

Deploying a Cloud Marketplace solution

Deploying application infrastructure using Cloud Deployment Manager. Tasks include:

Developing Deployment Manager templates

Launching a Deployment Manager template

Ensuring successful operation of a cloud solution

Managing Compute Engine resources. Tasks include:

Managing a single VM instance (e.g., start, stop, edit configuration, or delete an instance)

SSH/RDP to the instance

Attaching a GPU to a new instance and installing CUDA libraries

Viewing current running VM inventory (instance IDs, details)

Working with snapshots (e.g., create a snapshot from a VM, view snapshots, delete a snapshot)

Working with images (e.g., create an image from a VM or a snapshot, view images, delete an image)

Working with instance groups (e.g., set autoscaling parameters, assign instance template, create an instance template, remove instance group)

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, GCloud SDK)

Managing Google Kubernetes Engine resources. Tasks include:

Viewing current running cluster inventory (nodes, pods, services)

Browsing the container image repository and viewing container image details

Working with node pools (e.g., add, edit, or remove a node pool)

Working with pods (e.g., add, edit, or remove pods)

Working with services (e.g., add, edit, or remove a service)

Working with stateful applications (e.g. persistent volumes, stateful sets)

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Managing App Engine and Cloud Run resources. Tasks include:

Adjusting application traffic splitting parameters

Setting scaling parameters for autoscaling instances

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Managing storage and database solutions. Tasks include:

Moving objects between Cloud Storage buckets

Converting Cloud Storage buckets between storage classes

Setting object life cycle management policies for Cloud Storage buckets

Executing queries to retrieve data from data instances (e.g., Cloud SQL, BigQuery, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Datastore, Cloud Bigtable)

Estimating costs of a BigQuery query

Backing up and restoring data instances (e.g., Cloud SQL, Cloud Datastore)

Reviewing job status in Cloud Dataproc, Cloud Dataflow, or BigQuery

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Managing networking resources. Tasks include:

Adding a subnet to an existing VPC

Expanding a subnet to have more IP addresses

Reserving static external or internal IP addresses

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Monitoring and logging. Tasks include:

Creating Stackdriver alerts based on resource metrics

Creating Stackdriver custom metrics

Configuring log sinks to export logs to external systems (e.g., on-premises or BigQuery)

Viewing and filtering logs in Stackdriver

Viewing specific log message details in Stackdriver

Using cloud diagnostics to research an application issue (e.g., viewing Cloud Trace data, using Cloud Debug to view an application point-in-time)

Viewing Google Cloud Platform status

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Configuring access and security

Managing identity and access management (IAM). Tasks include:

Viewing IAM role assignments

Assigning IAM roles to accounts or Google Groups

Defining custom IAM roles

Managing service accounts. Tasks include:

Managing service accounts with limited privileges

Assigning a service account to VM instances

Granting access to a service account in another project

Viewing audit logs for project and managed services.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug