Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Google-PCD
Exam Name : Professional Cloud Developer
Vendor Name : Google
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A Professional Cloud Developer builds scalable and highly available applications using Google-recommended practices and tools that leverage fully managed services. This individual has experience with cloud-native applications, runtime environments, developer tools, and next-generation databases. A Professional Cloud Developer also has proficiency with at least one general-purpose programming language and is skilled at producing meaningful metrics and logs to debug and trace code.

The Professional Cloud Developer exam assesses your ability to:
Design highly scalable, available, and reliable cloud-native applications
Build and test applications
Deploy applications
Integrate Google Cloud Platform services
Manage application performance monitoring

A Professional Cloud Developer builds scalable and highly available applications using Google-recommended practices and tools that leverage fully managed services. This individual has experience with cloud-native applications, runtime environments, developer tools, and next-generation databases. A Professional Cloud Developer also has proficiency with at least one general-purpose programming language and is skilled at producing meaningful metrics and logs to debug and trace code.

Section 1: Designing highly scalable, available, and reliable cloud-native applications
1.1 Designing high-performing applications and APIs. Considerations include:
- Microservices
- Scaling velocity characteristics/tradeoffs of IaaS (infrastructure as a service) vs. CaaS (container as a service) vs. PaaS (platform as a service)
- Evaluating different services and technologies
- Geographic distribution of Google Cloud services (e.g., latency, regional services, zonal services)
- Defining a key structure for high-write applications using Cloud Storage, Cloud Bigtable, Cloud Spanner, or Cloud SQL
- User session management
- Caching solutions
- Deploying and securing API services
- Loosely coupled applications using asynchronous Cloud Pub/Sub events
- Graceful shutdown on platform termination
- Google-recommended practices and documentation

1.2 Designing secure applications. Considerations include:
- Implementing requirements that are relevant for applicable regulations (e.g., data wipeout)
- Security mechanisms that protect services and resources
- Security mechanisms that secure/scan application binaries and manifests
- Storing and rotating application secrets using Cloud KMS
- Authenticating to Google services (e.g., application default credentials, JWT, OAuth 2.0)
- IAM roles for users/groups/service accounts
- Securing service-to-service communications (e.g., service mesh, Kubernetes network policies, and Kubernetes namespaces)
- Set compute/workload identity to least privileged access
- Certificate-based authentication (e.g., SSL, mTLS)
- Google-recommended practices and documentation

1.3 Managing application data. Tasks include:
- Defining database schemas for Google-managed databases (e.g., Cloud Firestore, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Bigtable, Cloud SQL)
- Choosing data storage options based on use case considerations, such as:
- Cloud Storage-signed URLs for user-uploaded content
- Structured vs. unstructured data
- Strong vs. eventual consistency
- Data volume
- Frequency of data access in Cloud Storage
- Following Google-recommended practices and documentation

1.4 Refactoring applications to migrate to Google Cloud. Tasks include:
- Using managed services
- Migrating a monolith to microservices
- Google-recommended practices and documentation

Section 2: Building and Testing Applications
2.1 Setting up your local development environment. Considerations include:
- Emulating Google Cloud services for local application development
- Creating Google Cloud projects

2.2 Writing code. Considerations include:
- Algorithm design
- Modern application patterns
- Efficiency
- Agile software development
- Unit testing

2.3 Testing. Considerations include:
- Performance testing
- Integration testing
- Load testing

2.4 Building. Considerations include:
- Creating a Cloud Source Repository and committing code to it
- Creating container images from code
- Developing a continuous integration pipeline using services (e.g., Cloud Build, Container Registry) that construct deployment artifacts
- Reviewing and improving continuous integration pipeline efficacy

Section 3: Deploying applications
3.1 Recommend appropriate deployment strategies for the target compute environment (Compute Engine, Google Kubernetes Engine). Strategies include:
- Blue/green deployments
- Traffic-splitting deployments
- Rolling deployments
- Canary deployments

3.2 Deploying applications and services on Compute Engine. Tasks include:
- Installing an application into a VM
- Modifying the VM service account
- Manually updating dependencies on a VM
- Exporting application logs and metrics
- Managing Compute Engine VM images and binaries

3.3 Deploying applications and services to Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE). Tasks include:
- Deploying a containerized application to GKE
- Managing Kubernetes RBAC and Google Cloud IAM relationship
- Configuring Kubernetes namespaces and access control
- Defining workload specifications (e.g., resource requirements)
- Building a container image using Cloud Build
- Configuring application accessibility to user traffic and other services
- Managing container lifecycle
- Define deployments, services, and pod configurations
3.4 Deploying a Cloud Function. Types include:
- Cloud Functions that are triggered via an event (e.g., Cloud Pub/Sub events, Cloud Storage object change notification events)
- Cloud Functions that are invoked via HTTP
- Securing Cloud Functions

3.5 Using service accounts. Tasks include:
- Creating a service account according to the principle of least privilege
- Downloading and using a service account private key file

Section 4: Integrating Google Cloud Platform Services
4.1 Integrating an application with data and storage services. Tasks include:
- Read/write data to/from various databases (e.g., SQL, JDBC)
- Connecting to a data store (e.g., Cloud SQL, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Firestore, Cloud Bigtable)
- Writing an application that publishes/consumes data asynchronously (e.g., from Cloud Pub/Sub)
- Storing and retrieving objects from Cloud Storage
- Using the command-line interface (CLI), Google Cloud Console, and Cloud Shell tools

4.2 Integrating an application with compute services. Tasks include:
- Implementing service discovery in Google Kubernetes Engine and Compute Engine
- practicing instance metadata to obtain application configuration
- Authenticating users by using OAuth2.0 Web Flow and Identity Aware Proxy
- Using the command-line interface (CLI), Google Cloud Console, and Cloud Shell tools

4.3 Integrating Google Cloud APIs with applications. Tasks include:
- Enabling a Google Cloud API
- Making API calls with a Cloud Client Library, the REST API, or the APIs Explorer, taking into consideration:
- Batching requests
- Restricting return data
- Paginating results
- Caching results
- Error handling (e.g., exponential backoff)
- Using service accounts to make Google API calls

Section 5: Managing Application Performance Monitoring
5.1 Managing Compute Engine VMs. Tasks include:
- Debugging a custom VM image using the serial port
- Analyzing a failed Compute Engine VM startup
- Analyzing logs
- Sending logs from a VM to Cloud Monitoring
- Inspecting resource utilization over time
- Viewing syslogs from a VM

5.2 Managing Google Kubernetes Engine workloads. Tasks include:
- Configuring logging and monitoring
- Analyzing container lifecycle events (e.g., CrashLoopBackOff, ImagePullErr)
- Analyzing logs
- Using external metrics and corresponding alerts
- Configuring workload autoscaling

5.3 Troubleshooting application performance. Tasks include:
- Creating a monitoring dashboard
- Writing custom metrics and creating metrics from logs
- Graphing metrics
- Using Cloud Debugger
- Reviewing stack traces for error analysis
- Exporting logs from Google Cloud
- Viewing logs in the Google Cloud Console
- Profiling performance of request-response
- Profiling services
- Reviewing application performance (e.g., Cloud Trace, Prometheus, OpenCensus)
- Monitoring and profiling a running applicationv - Using documentation, forums, and Google support



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug