Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Google-PCNE
Exam Name : Professional Cloud Network Engineer
Vendor Name : Google
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Professional Cloud Network Engineer
A Professional Cloud Network Engineer implements and manages network architectures in Google Cloud Platform. This individual has at least 1 year of hands-on experience working with Google Cloud Platform and may work on networking or cloud teams with architects who design the infrastructure. By leveraging experience implementing VPCs, hybrid connectivity, network services, and security for established network architectures, this individual ensures successful cloud implementations using the command line interface or the Google Cloud Platform Console.

The Professional Cloud Network Engineer exam assesses your ability to:
- Design, plan, and prototype a GCP Network
- Implement a GCP Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
- Configure network services
- Implement hybrid interconnectivity
- Implement network security

1. Designing, planning, and prototyping a GCP network
1.1 Designing the overall network architecture. Considerations include:
- Failover and disaster recovery strategy
- Options for high availability
- DNS strategy (e.g., on-premises, Cloud DNS, GSLB)
- Meeting business requirements
- Choosing the appropriate load balancing options
- Optimizing for latency (e.g., MTU size, caches, CDN)
- Understanding how quotas are applied per project and per VPC
- Hybrid connectivity (e.g., Google private access for hybrid connectivity)
- Container networking
- IAM and security
- SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS services
- Microsegmentation for security purposes (e.g., using metadata, tags)

1.2 Designing a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). Considerations include:
- CIDR range for subnets
- IP addressing (e.g., static, ephemeral, private)
- Standalone or shared
- Multiple vs. single
- Multi-zone and multi-region
- Peering
- Firewall (e.g., service account–based, tag-based)
- Routes
- Differences between Google Cloud Networking and other cloud platforms

1.3 Designing a hybrid network. Considerations include:
- Using interconnect (e.g., dedicated vs. partner)
- Peering options (e.g., direct vs. carrier)
- IPsec VPN
- Cloud Router
- Failover and disaster recovery strategy (e.g., building high availability with BGP using cloud router)
- Shared vs. standalone VPC interconnect access
- Cross-organizational access
- Bandwidth

1.4 Designing a container IP addressing plan for Google Kubernetes Engine
2. Implementing a GCP Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
2.1 Configuring VPCs. Considerations include:
- Configuring GCP VPC resources (CIDR range, subnets, firewall rules, etc.)
- Configuring VPC peering
- Creating a shared VPC and explaining how to share subnets with other projects
- Configuring API access (private, public, NAT GW, proxy)
- Configuring VPC flow logs

2.2 Configuring routing. Tasks include:
- Configuring internal static/dynamic routing
- Configuring routing policies using tags and priority
- Configuring NAT (e.g., Cloud NAT, instance-based NAT)

2.3 Configuring and maintaining Google Kubernetes Engine clusters. Considerations include:
- VPC-native clusters using alias IPs
- Clusters with shared VPC
- Private clusters
- Cluster network policy
- Adding authorized networks for cluster master access

2.4 Configuring and managing firewall rules. Considerations include:
- Target network tags and service accounts
- Priority
- Network protocols
- Ingress and egress rules
- Firewall logs

3. Configuring network services
3.1 Configuring load balancing. Considerations include:
- Creating backend services
- Firewall and security rules
- HTTP(S) load balancer: including changing URL maps, backend groups, health checks, CDN, and SSL certs
- TCP and SSL proxy load balancers
- Network load balancer
- Internal load balancer
- Session affinity
- Capacity scaling

3.2 Configuring Cloud CDN. Considerations include:
- Enabling and disabling Cloud CDN
- Using cache keys
- Cache invalidation
- Signed URLs

3.3 Configuring and maintaining Cloud DNS. Considerations include:
- Managing zones and records
- Migrating to Cloud DNS
- DNS Security (DNSSEC)
- Global serving with Anycast
- Cloud DNS
- Internal DNS
- Integrating on-premises DNS with GCP

3.4 Enabling other network services. Considerations include:
- Health checks for your instance groups
- Canary (A/B) releases
- Distributing backend instances using regional managed instance groups
- Enabling private API access

4. Implementing hybrid interconnectivity
4.1 Configuring interconnect. Considerations include:
- Partner (e.g., layer 2 vs. layer 3 connectivity)
- Virtualizing using VLAN attachments
- Bulk storage uploads

4.2 Configuring a site-to-site IPsec VPN (e.g., route-based, policy-based, dynamic or static routing).
4.3 Configuring Cloud Router for reliability.
5. Implementing network security
5.1 Configuring identity and access management (IAM). Tasks include:
- Viewing account IAM assignments
- Assigning IAM roles to accounts or Google Groups
- Defining custom IAM roles
- Using pre-defined IAM roles (e.g., network admin, network viewer, network user)

5.2 Configuring Cloud Armor policies. Considerations include:
- IP-based access control

5.3 Configuring third-party device insertion into VPC using multi-nic (NGFW)
5.4 Managing keys for SSH access
6. Managing and monitoring network operations
6.1 Logging and monitoring with Stackdriver or GCP Console
6.2 Managing and maintaining security. Considerations include:
- Firewalls (e.g., cloud-based, private)
- Diagnosing and resolving IAM issues (shared VPC, security/network admin)

6.3 Maintaining and troubleshooting connectivity issues. Considerations include:
- Identifying traffic flow topology (e.g., load balancers, SSL offload, network endpoint groups)
- Draining and redirecting traffic flows
- Cross-connect handoff for interconnect
- Monitoring ingress and egress traffic using flow logs
- Monitoring firewall logs
- Managing and troubleshooting VPNs
- Troubleshooting Cloud Router BGP peering issues

6.4 Monitoring, maintaining, and troubleshooting latency and traffic flow. Considerations include:
- Network throughput and latency testing
- Routing issues
- Tracing traffic flow

7. Optimizing network resources
7.1 Optimizing traffic flow. Considerations include:
- Load balancer and CDN location
- Global vs. regional dynamic routing
- Expanding subnet CIDR ranges in service
- Accommodating workload increases (e.g., autoscaling vs. manual scaling)

7.2 Optimizing for cost and efficiency. Considerations include:
- Cost optimization (Network Service Tiers, Cloud CDN, autoscaler [max instances])
- Automation
- VPN vs. interconnect
- Bandwidth utilization (e.g., kernel sys tuning parameters)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug